Black History Quiz Bowl 2014

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Breakdown the STEM acronym
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
What is the definiton of STEM
integration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a new cross-disciplinary subject in schools.   
What is Science
Science deals with and seeks the understanding of the natural world (NRC, 1996, p. 24), and is the underpinning of technology.   
What is Technology
Technology is the modification of the natural world to meet human wants and needs (ITEA, 2000, p. 7).   
What is Engineering
 Engineering is the profession in which the knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences is applied to develop ways to utilize the  materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind   
What is Mathematics
Mathematics is the science of patterns and relationships. It provides an exact language for technology, science, and engineering.   
In what year did Congress pass a bill establishing a National Science Foundation, but President Harry S. Truman vetoed it because it did not give the president authority to name the director of the agency
What was established on May 10th, 1950 with the passing of Public Law 81-507?     
National Science Foundation   
What is the National Science Foundation tasked to do?   
  The National Science Foundation (NSF) is tasked to keep the United States at the leading edge of discovery in areas from astronomy to geology to  zoology.   
What is the College Science Improvement Program and when was it established?   
   October of 1967, the College Science Improvement Program was established to assist predominantly undergraduate institutions to upgrade their  science teaching.
Fill in the Blank: The first Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching (PAESMT) are presented in a White House Ceremony on  __________________________
October 19th, 1983   
Who is the author of the following quote? "... Leadership tomorrow depends on how we educate our students today—especially in science, technology, engineering and math."   
President Barack Obama
Fill in the Blank: The 1957 launch of Russian satellite _________________ inspired a generation of innovation in technology and engineering in America
Multiple Choice: The White House’s 2014 Budget invests _________________ in programs across the Federal government on STEM education.  a. $1.3 billion  b. $3.1 billion - Answer  c. $1.3 million  d. $1.3 billion   
b. $3.1 billion     
In what year did the National Science Foundation (NSF) establish the Historically  Black Colleges and Universities Under Graduate Program (HBCU-UP) to assist HBCUs in their effort to strengthen science, technology, engineering and  mathematics (STEM) education and research capacity as a means to broaden participation in the Nation’s STEM workforce    
The NC STEM Learning Network is a consortium of local schools and districts that show promise and commitment to developing STEM education with other public and  private partners. Together with state and national business partners, foundations and higher education leaders, NC STEM Learning Network members will have access  to high-quality STEM tools, technology and support to advance STEM education for all kids throughout North Carolina. Name three of the current Member School Systems.   
 Alleghany County Schools, Kannapolis City Schools, Buncombe County Schools, Lee County Schools, Caldwell County Schools, Lenoir County Public  Schools, Catawba County Schools, Moore County Schools, Edenton Chowan Schools, Onslow County Schools, Franklin County Schools, Perquimans County Schools, Henderson County Public Schools, Rutheford County Schools, Johnston County Schools, Surry County Schools
How are the 100 eight grade girls chosen to attend the annual STEM Girls conference at East Carolina University    
Girls are selected by teachers and counselors because they have shown an interest in math or science, are self-motivated, or they have the potential to be inspired by the event.   
What is the name of the STEM high school closest to Pitt County and where is it located?   
 Wayne School of Engineering on the Goldsboro High School Campus
Multiple Choice: Which North Carolina HBCU landed on Forbes Top Colleges 2013  list?  a) North Carolina Central University  b) Johnson C. Smith University  c) North Carolina A&T State University  d) Shaw University   
  North Carolina A&T State University     
Fill in the Blank: Science Outreach Summer Academy (SOSA) primary objective is to increase the number of minority graduates in biology, chemistry, mathematics and computer science at ___________________________.   
 Shaw University   
Charles Drew (3 June 1904 – 1 April 1950)  Born in Washington, D.C., Drew earned advanced degrees in medicine and surgery from McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, in 1933 and from Columbia University in 1940. He is particularly noted for his research in blood plasma and for setting up the first blood bank.
Dr. Daniel Hale Williams (January 18, 1858 – August 4, 1931)  Williams was born in Pennsylvania and attended medical school in Chicago, where he received his M.D. in 1883. He founded the Provident Hospital in Chicago in 1891, and he performed the first successful open heart surgery in 1893. 
Emmett Chappelle (born October 25, 1925)  Born in Phoenix, Arizona, Chappelle earned a B.S. from the University of California and an M.S. from the University of Washington. He joined NASA in 1977 as a remote sensing scientist. Among Chappelle's discoveries is a method (developed  with Grace Picciolo) of instantly detecting bacteria in water, which led to the improved diagnoses of urinary tract infections.   
Ernest Everett Just (August 14, 1883 – October 27, 1941)  Born in Charleston, SC, this African American biologist and author known is best known for his work on egg fertilization and the structure of the cell. Ernest Just graduated magna cum laude from Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire in 1907. While teaching at Howard University,  Ernest assisted three Howard University students (Edgar Amos Love, Oscar James Cooper, and Frank Coleman), in establishing Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. on November 17,  1911.   
George Washington Carver (January 1864 – January 5, 1943)  Born into slavery in Missouri, Carver later earned degrees from Iowa Agricultural College. The director of agricultural research at the Tuskegee Institute from 1896 until his death,  Carver developed hundreds of applications for farm products important to the economy of the South, including the peanut, sweet potato, soybean, and pecan.   
Marie Maynard Daly (April 16, 1921 – October 28, 2003)  Born in Corona, Queens, Marie Maynard Daly graduated from Queens College magna cum laude in 1942. She completed her Masters in Chemistry from New York University in one year and received her Ph.D. in Chemistry from Columbia University in 1947. Daly was the first African American woman to earn a Ph.D. in Chemistry.   
Percy Lavon Julian (April 11, 1899 – April 19, 1975)  Alabama-born Julian held a bachelor's degree from DePaul University, a master's degree from Harvard University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Vienna. His most famous achievement is his synthesis of cortisone, which is used to treat arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.   
 Philip Emeagwali (born August 23, 1954)  Born in Nigeria in 1954, Philip Emeagwali's determination to succeed grew out of a life of poverty and little formal education. An expert in mathematics, physics, and astronomy, Emeagwali won the Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers' Gordon Bell Prize in 1989 for an experiment that used 65,000 processors to perform the world's fastest computation of 3.1 billion calculations per  second. Emeagwali's computers are currently being used to forecast the weather and predict future global warming.   
Samuel Massie Jr. (July 3, 1919 – April 10, 2005)  Samuel Massie was born on in North Little Rock, Arkansas. He earned a bachelor’s degree in chemistry with a minor in mathematics in 1937 from University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff and a Master’s Degree in Chemistry in 1940 from Fisk  University in Nashville, Tennessee. Massie later received a PhD in organic chemistry from Iowa State. An organic chemist, Samuel Massie, Jr. was the first African American to teach at the U.S. Naval Academy.   
Clarence L. Elder  Clarence L. Elder was born in Georgia in 1935. He graduated from Morgan State College. Clarence L. Elder is the head of his own research and development firm in Baltimore, Maryland  (Elder Systems Incorporated). In 1976, Clarence Elder was awarded a patent for a monitoring and energy conservation control system. Called an Occustat, the control system is designed to reduce energy use in temporarily vacant homes and  buildings, especially useful for hotels and school rooms.   
Warren Washington  Washington was born in Portland, Oregon. He graduated from Oregon State University with a B. S. and an M.S. in meteorology, and obtained a doctoral degree in meteorology from Pennsylvania State University in 1964. He joined the National Center for Atmospheric Research in 1963 as a scientist and then moved through the ranks to become senior  scientist in 1975. Warren Washington helped pioneer the field of atmospheric computer modeling. Now, Washington is a senior scientist and head of the Climate Change Research Section in the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the NCAR.
Rebecca Lee Crumpler
Rebecca Cole  Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on March 16, 1846, Cole attended the Institute for Colored Youth, graduating in 1863. She then went on to graduate from the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1867, becoming the second black woman to graduate from medical school. Afterwards, she joined Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first white woman physician, in New York and taught hygiene and childcare to families in poor neighborhoods.   
Edward Alexander Bouchet Born in New Haven, Connecticut in 1852, Bouchet was the first African American to graduate (1874) from Yale College. In 1876, upon receiving his Ph.D. in physics from Yale, he became the first African American to earn a doctorate. Bouchet was also the first African American to be elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He spent his career teaching college  chemistry and physics.
Charles Henry Turner  Charles Henry Turner was born in Cincinnati, Ohio on February 3, 1867. He was a prominent research biologist, educator, zoologist, and comparative psychologist. Turner received a B.S. (1891) and M.S. (1892) from the University of Cincinnati and a Ph.D. (1907) from the University of Chicago. A noted authority on the behavior of insects, he was the first researcher to prove that insects can hear.   
Erich Jarvis  Neurobiologist Erich D. Jarvis was born on May 6, 1965, in Harlem, New York. After obtaining his B.A. degree in mathematics and biology in 1988 from Hunter College, Jarvis pursued his Ph.D. in molecular neurobiology and animal behavior at The Rockefeller University where he researched vocal learning in songbirds. He received his Ph.D. in 1995 and stayed at The Rockefeller University to conduct postdoctoral research. He left Rockefeller in 1998 to become an assistant professor in the Department of Neurobiology at Duke University. Jarvis has been recognized as a young pioneer in his field,  and his research and study of songbird neurology has won him many awards.   
Roger Arliner Young  Born in Clifton Forge, Virginia in 1889, Young soon moved with her family to Burgettstown, Pennsylvania. In 1916, Young enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D.C. to study music. She did not take her first science course until 1921. Young graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1923. Young received a master’s degree from the University of Chicago in 1926 and her Ph.D. in Zoology in 1940 from  University of Pennsylvania, making her the first African American woman to receive a doctorate degree in zoology.   
 James Edward Bowman  James Edward Bowman was born on February 5, 1923, in Washington, D.C. where he attended Dunbar High School. He earned his undergraduate and medical degrees from Howard University in 1943 and 1946. His residency in pathology was at St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago where he was the first African American resident. He was internationally renowned as a specialist in pathology,  hematology, and genetics and a professor of pathology and genetics at the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago. Dr. Bowman and his wife had one daughter, Valerie Bowman Jarrett, who is a Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama.   
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Thomas Price Dooley  Thomas Price Dooley was born in Elberton, Georgia on October 12, 1904. He earned a Bachelor of Arts from Morehouse College in 1927 and a Master of Science from the University of Iowa in 1931. In 1939, Thomas Dooley earned a Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Iowa. In 1934 Dr. Dooley was appointed Professor at Prairie View A&M College. He served as Head of the Department of Natural Science from 1941 to 1949. Between 1949 and 1968, Professor Dooley served as Dean of the School of Arts  and Sciences, Prairie View A&M College.
Mary Styles Harris  Biologist, Geneticist Mary Styles Harris was born on June 26, 1949 in Nashville, TN. She earned a Bachelor of Arts in Biology from Lincoln University (PA) in 1971 and a Ph.D. in Genetics from Cornell University in 1975. Dr. Harris served a postdoctoral position at the Rutgers Medical School from  1976-1977. Dr. Harris served as Executive Director for the Sickle Cell Foundation of Georgia from 1977-1979. In 1978 Mary Harris was appointed Assistant Professor to the Morehouse College School of Medicine and served as Scientist in Residence for public television station WGTV Channel 8, University of Georgia from 1979-1980. From 1980-81, Dr. Harris was appointed Assistant Professor of  Biology for Atlanta University. Dr. Mary S. Harris served as Director of Genetic Services  for the Georgia Department of Human Resources and is president and genetics consultant for her company, Harris & Associates, Ltd, Atlanta, Georgia.   
Benjamin Solomon Carson  Benjamin Carson was bon on September 18, 1951 in Detroit, Michigan. He attended Southwestern High School in Southwest Detroit, and graduated from Yale University, where he majored in psychology. He received his M.D. from the University of Michigan Medical School. Dr. Carson is credited with pioneering work on the successful separation of  conjoined twins joined at the head. In 2008, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush. After delivering a widely publicized speech at the 2013 National Prayer Breakfast, he became a popular figure in  conservative media for his views on social issues and the federal government.
Gerald A. Lawson  Gerald Lawson was born in Brooklyn New York on  December 1, 1940 and passed away April 9th at the age of 70 in Santa Clara, California. Gerald or Jerry as his peers referred to him, created the first home video game system that used interchangeable cartridges, offering gamers a chance to play a variety of games and giving video game makers a way to earn profits by selling individual games, a business model that exists today. Anyone who owns a  Playstation, Wii or Xbox should know Lawson's name.   
James E. West  Jim West was born February 10, 1931 in Prince Edward County, Virginia, and studied physics at Temple University. Without West, rappers wouldn't be able to “rock the mic.” West, along with Gerhard M. Sessler, helped develop the electroacoustic transducer electret microphone, for which they received a patent in 1962. Their invention was acoustically accurate, lightweight and cost-effective. Ninety percent of microphones in use today -- including those in telephones, tape recorders  and camcorders -- are based on their original concept.   
Patricia Bath  Patricia Bath was born in Harlem, New York, on  November 4, 1942. She earned her Bachelor’s Degree from Hunter College in 1964 and graduated, with honors, from Howard University’s Medical School in 1968, Patricia Bath became the first African American to complete a residency in ophthalmology in 1973 (Columbia University). Two years later, she became the first female faculty member in the Department of Ophthalmology at UCLA's Jules Stein Eye Institute. In 1976, Bath co-founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, which established that "eyesight is a basic human right." In 1986, Bath finalized the invention of the Laserphaco Probe, improving treatment for cataract patients. She patented the device in 1988, becoming the first African-American female doctor to receive a medical patent.
 Granville T. Woods  Granville T. Woods was born in Columbus, Ohio, on April 23, 1856, to free African-Americans. He held various engineering and industrial jobs before establishing a company to develop electrical apparatus. Known as "Black Edison," he registered nearly 60 patents in his lifetime, but his most significant invention, the synchronous multiplex railway telegraph, patented in 1887, (over which he defeated a lawsuit by Thomas Edison) allowed railway stations to communicate with moving trains.   
Shirley A. Jackson  Shirley Ann Jackson, born August 5, 1946, is an  American physicist, and the 18th president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. She received her Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1973, becoming the first African American woman to earn a doctorate from MIT in nuclear physics. Jackson is known for her innovative work in theoretical physics and semiconductor theory. In 1985 President Bill Clinton appointed the physicist chairwoman of the U.S. Nuclear  Regulatory Commission, making her the first woman and the first African American to hold the position. In 2002  Discover Magazine named her one of the 50 Most  Important Women in Science.   
Mark Dean  Born in Jefferson City, Tennessee, on March 2, 1957, computer scientist and engineer Mark Dean helped  develop a number of landmark technologies for IBM,  including the color PC monitor and the first gigahertz  chip. He holds three of the company's original nine  patents. He also invented the Industry Standard  Architecture system bus with engineer Dennis Moeller, allowing for computer plug-ins such as disk drives and printers. Dean is one of technology's top innovators.   
 Marc Hannah  Electrical engineer and computer graphics designer Marc Regis Hannah was born on October 13, 1956, in Chicago, Illinois. He attended the Illinois Institute of Technology, with funding from a scholarship awarded by AT&T’s Bell Laboratories. Hannah received his B.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1977 before going on to Stanford University where he obtained his M.S. degree in 1978 and his Ph.D. degree in 1985. Anyone awed by the special effects in the films Jurassic Park, Terminator 2 and The Abyss should thank Hannah. The computer  scientist is one of the founders, in 1982, of the software firm Silicon Graphics (now SGI), where the special-effects genius developed 3-D graphics technology that would be used in many Hollywood movies. Donkey Kong fans also owe a debt of gratitude to Hannah. He was instrumental in designing the Nintendo 64 gaming system.   
Otis F. Boykin  Otis F. Boykin was born on August 29, 1920, in Dallas, Texas. He graduated from Fisk College in 1941 and took a job with the Majestic Radio and TV Corporation. He later worked at P. J. Nilsen Research Laboratories. He began to invent products on his own, with some of his noteworthy inventions including a wire precision resistor used in televisions and radios and a control unit for the  pacemaker. Boykin patented a type of resistor in 1959 that is still used today in radios, televisions and computers. Resistors are important in controlling the flow of electricity into components, which made for safer, longer-lasting -- and cheaper -- products. He also invented a control unit for the pacemaker.   
Lonnie Johnson  African-American engineer and inventor Lonnie G.  Johnson was born on October 6, 1949, in Mobile,  Alabama. After graduating from Tuskegee University with a master's degree, Johnson joined the U.S. Air Force and was assigned to the Strategic Air Command, where he helped develop the stealth bomber program. His other assignments included working as a systems engineer for the Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Cassini mission to  Saturn. One day in 1982 Johnson, an aerospace engineer who loved to tinker at home, was working on creating a heat pump that used water to cool down instead of Freon. That device led to one of the most popular toys ever made. The Super Soaker generated $200 million in retail sales and turned Johnson into a millionaire. He's now using his fortune to develop energy technology.   
James C. Letton  Born in Paris, KY, James C. Letton, a retired chemist, held a patent for the fat substitute Olestra. He was a 1955 graduate of Kentucky State University and earned his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Illinois in 1970. Letton made a name for himself at Procter & Gamble by earning several patents for biodegradable soap elements and enzyme stabilizers for laundry detergent in  the late 1970s
George E. Alcorn  George Edward Alcorn, Jr. was born on March 22, 1940. Alcorn graduated with a B.A. in physics in 1962, and in 1963 he completed a master's degree in nuclear physics from Howard University. In 1967 he earned his doctorate from Howard University in atomic and molecular physics. Dr. Alcorn joined NASA in 1978. While at NASA, Alcorn invented the imaging X-ray spectrometer, which allowed  scientists to examine materials that couldn't be broken down into smaller parts for study. The physicist received the NASA Inventor of the Year Award in 1984 for his device.   
 Roy L. Clay  Born in Kinloch, Missouri, Roy L. Clay learned how to  program computer codes while earning a degree at Saint Louis University for mathematics in 1956. Clay helped launch Hewlett-Packard's computer division in the late 1960s and is known to some as the godfather of black Silicon Valley for helping break down barriers for African Americans in technology. His recruitment and development of talent has helped usher in the next generation of black technology innovators.
Frederick M. Jones  Frederick McKinley Jones was born in Cincinnati, Ohio on May 17, 1893. In 1912, Jones moved to Hallock, Minnesota, where he worked as a mechanic on a 50,000-acre farm. After service with the U.S. Army in World War I, Jones returned to Hallock; while employed as a mechanic, Jones taught himself electronics and built a transmitter for the town's new radio station. In the mid-1930s, Jones designed a mobile refrigeration unit that could be used in  trucks, trains, ships and airplanes. His invention allowed the transportation of perishable foods such as produce and meats, which changed eating habits across the country. Thermo King, the company he co-founded, became a leading manufacturer of refrigerated transportation.   
Valerie Thomas  Valerie Thomas was born in May 1943 in Maryland. After graduating with a degree in chemistry from Morgan State University, Thomas accepted a position at NASA. She remained there until her retirement in 1995. During that time, Thomas received a patent for an illusion transmitter, an early form of 3-D technology, and contributed broadly to the organization's research efforts. Uses for the technology have yet to be fully realized, but with the increased interest in 3-D, her work will surely be an integral part of the future.   
George R. Carruthers  George Robert Carruthers was born October 1, 1939 in Cincinnati, Ohio. After graduating from Englewood High School he went on to get a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1961, a master’s degree in nuclear engineering in 1962, and a doctorate in aeronautical and astronautical engineering in 1964. After earning his doctorate he went to work for NASA, where he headed the team that invented the ultraviolet  camera spectrograph. The camera traveled to the moon with Apollo 16 in 1972. From the moon, researchers were able to study Earth's atmosphere.   
Norbert Rillieux  Norbert Rillieux was born in New Orleans on March  17, 1806. Rillieux was educated in France. Returning to the U.S., he developed an evaporator for refining  sugar, which he patented in 1846. Rillieux's  evaporation technique is still used in the sugar  industry and in the manufacture of soap and other  products.
Elijah McCoy  Elijah McCoy was born in Colchester, Ontario, Canada on May 2, 1844. Educated in Scotland as a mechanical engineer, Elijah McCoy returned to the United States and settled in Detroit, Michigan. He began experimenting with a cup that would regulate the flow of oil onto moving parts of industrial machines.  His first invention was a lubricator for steam engines, U.S. 129,843, which issued on July  12, 1872. The invention allowed machines to remain in motion to be oiled; his new oiling device revolutionized the industrial machine industry. Elijah McCoy established his own firm and was responsible for a total of 57 patents. The term "real McCoy" refers to the oiling device used for industrial  machinery. His contribution to the lubricating device became so popular that people inspecting new equipment would ask is the device contained the real McCoy. This helped popularize the American expression, meaning the real thing. His other inventions included an ironing board and lawn sprinkler.   
Archibald Alexander  Design and Construction Engineer  Archibald "Archie" Alexander was born in Ottumwa, Iowa on May 14, 1888. He attended Iowa State University and received a civil engineering degree in 1912. He was the first African-American football player at The University of Iowa  and the first African-American to receive a civil engineering degree. In 1914, as a designer for the Marsh Engineering Company, he was responsible for the design of the Tidal Basin Bridge in Washington, D.C. and the K Street Freeway.   
 David N. Crosthwait, Jr.  Electrical and Mechanical Engineer  David Crosthwait was born in Nashville, TN on May 27, 1898. He received a B. S. from Purdue University (1913) and a Masters of Engineering in 1920. Mr. Crosthwait was considered an authority on heat transfer, ventilation and air conditioning. He was responsible for designing the heating system for Radio City Music Hall, Rockefeller Center in New York City.   
Physicist, Engineer  Meredith C. Gourdine was born in Newark, New Jersey on September 26, 1929. He received a B.S. in Engineering Physics from Cornell University in 1953 and a Ph.D. in Engineering Physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1960. Dr. Gourdine pioneered the research of electrogasdynamics. He was responsible for the  engineering technique termed Incineraid for aiding in the removal of smoke from buildings. His work on gas dispersion developed techniques for dispersing fog from airport runways. 
Campbell C. Johnson  Quality Engineer  Campbell C. Johnson was born in Washington, D.C. on February 22, 1921. He received a B.S. degree in  Chemical Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic  Institute in 1942. For almost twenty years, Aerojet relied upon Campbell C. Johnson to assure that Aerojet General Corporation produces quality solid rockets.   
Lewis Howard Latimer  Engineer (Mechanical and Electrical)  Lewis Howard Latimer was born in Chelsea,  Massachusetts on September 4, 1848. He learned  mechanical drawing in the patent attorney office of  Crosby and Gould, Boston, Massachusetts. He  supervised the installation of carbon filament electric  lighting in New York City, Philadelphia, Montreal, and  London. He was responsible for preparing the mechanical drawings for Alexander Graham Bell’s patent application for his telephone design. For years he served as an expert witness in the court battles over Thomas Edison’s patents.   
Engineer  Frederick McDonald Massiah was born in Barbados,  West Indies on December 12, 1886. He studied  architecture at the Pennsylvania School of the Fine Arts and earned a degree in Civil Engineering at Drexel Institute (now Drexel University). Massiah is among the first successful Black contracting engineers in the country. He established a construction business during a time when it was almost impossible to obtain financing, insurance, and acceptance in trade unions. Construction of the Walnut Park Plaza Apartments in 1927 established Massiah's reputation as a leader in reinforced concrete.
Dr. Caldwell McCoy, Jr.  Electrical Engineer  Caldwell McCoy, Jr. was born June 27, 1933 in Hartford, Connecticut. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Connecticut and a Master of Science degree in Mathematics and Doctor of Science degrees in Telecommunications from George Washington University, Washington, D.C. As a Project Engineer in Anti-Submarine Warfare at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., his duties included designing, testing and evaluating systems for long-range detection and localization of submarines.   
DR. APRILLE ERICSSON  Aerospace Engineer (NASA)  Aprille Ericsson was born and raised in the Bedford  Styvesant neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York. She  earned her bachelor’s in aeronautical/astronautical  engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of  Technology and her Master’s and Ph.D. from Howard University (HU). She is the first African-American female to receive a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from HU. She was also the first African-American female to receive a Ph.D. in Engineering at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. As a NASA engineer, Ericsson has worked on many projects, including the Microwave Anisotropy Probe, the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, the James Webb Space Telescope, and in the Integrated Mission Design Center. Currently she is the instrument manager for a proposed mission to bring dust from the Martian lower atmosphere back to Earth.
O.S. (Ozzie) Williams  Aeronautical Engineer  Oswald S. “Ozzie” Williams was born on September 2, 1921, in Washington, D.C. Ozzie Williams received a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science in Aeronautical Engineering from NYU. Although one of NYU’s deans advised Williams that “people of your race are not ready for engineering, and engineering is not ready for you. I warn you not to waste your ambition and training where you cannot get a job,” O.S. (Ozzie) Williams went on to become the first Black Aeronautical Engineer to be hired by Republic Aviation, Inc. during World War II. Within four years he was promoted to Senior Aerodynamicist. After the  war he joined Greer Hydraulics, Inc. where he became the group project engineer from  1956 to 1962. At Greer Hydraulics he helped develop the first airborne radar beacon, useful for locating crashed aircraft.
Dr. Mae C. Jemison  Astronaut and Physician Mae C. Jemison was born on October 17, 1956, in Decatur, Alabama. She received a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering from Stanford University in 1977. Upon graduation, she entered Cornell University  Medical College and obtained her M.D. in 1981.  On June 4, 1987, she became the first African-American woman ever admitted into the astronaut training program.  On September 12, 1992, Jemison finally flew into space with six other astronauts aboard the Endeavour on mission STS47. In recognition of her accomplishments, Jemison received several awards and honorary doctorates.   
Percy A. Pierre  Electrical Engineer, Mathematician Percy Anthony Pierre was born in St. James Parish, Louisiana on January 3, 1939. He received a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering in 1961 and a Master of  Science in Electrical Engineering in 1963 from Notre Dame University. Pierre earned a Doctor of Science in Electrical Engineering in 1967 from The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. He is the first African American in the country to earn a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering. In 1971, Dr. Pierre was appointed Dean of the School of Engineering at Howard University. From 1977-1981, Professor Pierre was appointed Assistant Secretary for Research, Development, and Regulation for the U.S.  Department of the Army. Dr. Pierre served as an Engineering Management Consultant beginning in 1981. Dr. Pierre was appointed President of Prairie View A&M University from 1983-89 and Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (1990-1995). Since 1995 he has been a full-time  Professor of Electrical Engineering at MSU.   
With more than 29,900 members and a mission "to increase the number of culturally responsible black engineers who excel academically, succeed professionally and positively impact the community" this organization is one of the largest student-governed organizations in the country. What is the name of the organization?     
  Answer: The National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE)   
Multiple Choice: The “Chicago Six", Anthony Harris, Brian Harris, Stanley L. Kirtley,  John W. Logan, Jr., Edward A. Coleman, and George A. Smith, founded the NSBE on what campus?  a) Purdue University b) Howard University  c) Penn State University  d) NC A&T State University 
Purdue University   
This engineer’s team developed computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems for Boeing, which led the way to him being named president of Boeing Africa in 2000. What is this engineer’s name?  
Walter Brathwaite   
Who were the Alaska Highway Veterans?     
 black WWII era civil engineers that helped build the Alaska Highway.   
This African American woman obtained a Bachelor of Science Degreein Mechanical Engineering from Polytecnic Institute of NYU in 1980 and a Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Columbia University a year later.  She was the first African-American CEO to head a fortune 500 company.  She was also the first woman to succeed another woman as head of a fortune 500 company.  In 2009, Forbes rated her the most powerful woman in the world.  What is this woman's name and the name of the company that she heads?
Ursula Burns; Xerox   
George Biddle Kelley was the first black engineer registered in the state of New York and founding member of what fraternal organization?   
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Incorporated
This software giant's scholarships are awarded to high school seniors interested in studying engineering, computer science, computer information systems, or business. The $5,000 scholarships are renewable each year. What is the name of the scholarships?     
   "Blacks at Microsoft"   
This American multinational computer technology corporation offers $10,000 scholarships to those attending historically black colleges and universities (and a variety of other universities) who are studying computer science, engineering, software development,  or business. What is the name of the company?   
Fill in the Blank - The Gates Millennium Scholars Program, established in 1999, was initially funded by a $1 billion grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The -__________________________ administers the Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) Program.     
 United Negro College Fund (UNCF)   
Benjamin Banneker  Mathematician, Astronomer Benjamin Banneker was born on November 9, 1731 in Baltimore County, Maryland. Banneker had little formal education and taught himself astronomy and advanced mathematics. He is known for being part of a group led by Major Andrew Ellicott that surveyed the borders of the original District of Columbia, the federal capital district of the United States. Banneker's knowledge of astronomy helped him author a commercially successful series of almanacs. In 1753 at the  age of 22, Banneker completed a wooden clock that struck on the hour. He appears to have modeled his clock from a borrowed pocket watch by carving each piece to scale. The clock continued to work until Banneker's death.   
Sister Mary Sylvester Deconge  Mathematician  Sister Mary Sylvester Deconge was born in Wickliff,  Louisiana in 1933. She received a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics and Science from Seton College in 1959. In 1962 she graduated with a Master of Arts in Mathematics from the Louisiana State University. Sister Deconge earned a Ph.D. in Mathematics and French from St. Louis University in 1968. Sister Deconge is a nun in the holy order of the Sisters of S F. Sister Deconge served as an Elementary school teacher in parochial schools in Baton Rouge and Lafayette, Louisiana Dioceses, 1952 to 1955.  From 1959 to 1964, Sister Deconge was a teacher at the Holy Ghost High School in Opelousas, Louisiana. Between 1962 and 1964, she was a teacher for both Holy Ghost High School and Delisle Junior College, Delisle, Mississippi. Sister Deconge was appointed as an Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Loyola University in New Orleans, Louisiana from 1968 to 1971. In 1971, Sister Deconge was appointed to the Mathematics Faculty at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.   
Annie Easley  Computer Scientist  Annie Easley was born on April 23, 1933 in Birmingham, Alabama. Ms. Easley has worked for National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center and its predecessor agency (NACA) in Cleveland, Ohio since 1955. She continued her education while working for the agency and in 1977 she obtained a Bachelor of Science in  Mathematics from Cleveland State University. As part of a continuing education Ms. Easley worked through  specialization courses offered by NASA. Annie Easley developed and implemented computer code used in  determining solar, wind, and energy projects for NASA. Her energy assignments have included studies to determine the life use of storage batteries, such as those used in electric utility vehicles. Her computer applications are used to identify energy conversion systems that offer the improvement over commercially available technologies.
Evelyn Boyd Granville  Mathematician  Evelyn Boyd Granville was born in Washington, D.C. on May 1, 1924 and attended Dunbar High School, a  segregated high school at the time. Her interest in  mathematics was encouraged by two mathematics  teachers, Ulysses Basset (a graduate of Yale) and Mary Cromwell (graduate of the University of Pennsylvania). Granville attended Smith College on a partial scholarship. In 1945 she graduated summa cum laude and elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Granville worked with Einar Hille, a distinguished mathematician in the field of functional analysis, as her Ph.D. faculty advisor at Yale University. Evelyn Granville received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from  Yale in 1949, the same year as another woman  mathematician; Marjorie Lee Browne received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Michigan. Granville and Browne represented the first two Black women to receive doctorates in Mathematics in the United States.   
Katherine G. Johnson  Space Scientist, Mathematician  Katherine Johnson was born on August 26, 1918 in  White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. Katherine G.  Johnson received her B.S. degree in French and  mathematics in 1934 from West Virginia State University (formerly West Virginia State College). She has worked for NASA with the tracking teams of manned and unmanned orbital missions. Ms. Johnson was an Aerospace Technologist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. She has worked on challenging problems of interplanetary trajectories, space navigation, and the orbits of spacecraft. The spacecraft include the Earth Resources Satellite, which has helped locate  underground minerals and other earth resources. Ms. Johnson analyzed data gathered by tracking stations around the world during the lunar orbital missions -- the Apollo moon missions. Later, she studied new navigation procedures to determine more practical ways to track manned and unmanned space missions. For her pioneering work in the field of navigation problems, she was the recipient of the Group Achievement Award presented to NASA's Lunar Spacecraft and Operations team.   
Louis W. Roberts  Physicist and Mathematician  Louis W. Roberts was born on September 1, 1913 in  Jamestown, NY. He was educated at Fisk University,  where he received a Bachelor of Arts in 1935, and a  Master of Science from the University of Michigan in  1937. He served as Instructor of Physics at St.  Augustine's College from 1937-39. Louis W. Roberts was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Physics at St. Augustine's College from 1941 to 1943 and Associate Professor of Physics at Howard University, 1943-44. Roberts holds eleven patents for electronic devices and is the author of papers on electromagnetism.   
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J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr.  Physicist, Mathematician, Engineer  Jesse Ernest Wilkins, Jr. was born on November 27, 1923 in Chicago, IL. Wilkins was an African American nuclear scientist, engineer, mathematician, who gained first fame on entering the University of Chicago at age 13, becoming its youngest ever student. His intelligence led to him being  referred to as a "negro genius" in the media. In 1940  Wilkins completed his B.Sc. in mathematics at age 17, then his M.Sc. at age 18, and finally went on to complete a Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Chicago, graduating in 1942 at age 19. In order to improve his rapport with the nuclear engineers reporting to him, Wilkins later received both Bachelor's and Master's degrees in mechanical engineering from New York University in 1957 and 1960, thus earning five science degrees during his life. He served as an Instructor of Mathematics at the Tuskegee Institute from 1943 to 1944. Wilkins was  Associate Physicist to Physicist on the Manhattan Project from 1944 to 1946. J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr. primary achievement has been the development of radiation shielding against gamma radiation, emitted during electron decay of the Sun and other nuclear sources. He developed mathematical models by which the amount of gamma radiation absorbed by a given material can be calculated.   
David Harold Blackwell  Statistician  David Harold Blackwell was born April 24, 1919. He was Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of California. Born in Centralia, Illinois, Blackwell was the first African American inducted into the National Academy of Scientists, the first black tenured faculty member at UC Berkeley and lends his name to the Rao-Blackwell theorem. As a child, Blackwell had little interest in algebra and trigonometry. But in his junior year, he fell in love with mathematics during an elementary analysis course. At age 22, he earned his first Ph.D. in mathematics. Blackwell was also a pioneer in textbook writing. He authored one of the first Bayesian textbooks, Basic Statistics published in 1969.   
Elbert Frank Cox Mathematician  Elbert Frank Cox was born on December 5, 1895. Cox enrolled at Indiana University in September 1913 and became the first to receive a bachelor's degree in mathematics at the university. Cox was also initiated into Kappa Alpha Nu (Kappa Alpha Psi) Fraternity Inc. He was an American mathematician who became the first black person in the world to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics (Cornell University, 1925. He spent most of his life as a professor at Howard University in Washington, D.C., where  he was known as an excellent teacher. In his honor, the National Association of Mathematicians established the Cox-Talbot Address, which is  anually delivered at the NAM's national meetings.
Joseph J. Dennis
Joseph J. Dennis wa sborn on April 11, 1095 in Gainesville, Florida.  He wa s an American mathimatician and served as the chairman of the Clark College mathematics department from 1930 to 1974.  He earned his PH.D. at Northwestern Univerisity in 1044.  His theisis was "Some Points in the Theory of Positive Definite J-Fractions"(related to continued fractions co-authored with H.S. Wall.  He was the eleventh African American to earn a PhD.
Kelly Miller  Mathematician  Miller was born in Winnsboro, South Carolina, in 1863, and graduated from Howard University in 1886. He was the first African American admitted to Johns Hopkins University when he began his graduate studies in mathematics, physics, and astronomy. He was an African-American mathematician, sociologist, essayist, newspaper columnist, author, and an important figure in the intellectual life of black America for close to half a century. Appointed professor of mathematics at Howard in 1890, Miller introduced sociology into the curriculum in 1895, serving as professor of sociology from 1895 to 1934. As dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, he modernized the classical curriculum, strengthening the natural and social sciences. Miller graduated from Howard University School of Law in 1903. 
Clarence F. Stephens  Mathematician  Clarence F. Stephens was born on July 24, 1917 in  Macon, Georgia. Stephens graduated from Johnson C. Smith University in 1938 with a B.S. degree in  mathematics. He received his M.S. (1939) and his Ph.D. (1943) from the University of Michigan. He was the 9th African American to receive his Ph.D. in mathematics. He is credited with inspiring students and faculty at SUNY Potsdam to form the most successful United States undergraduate mathematics degree programs in the past  century. After serving in the U.S. Navy (1942–1946) as a Teaching Specialist, Dr. Stephens joined the mathematics faculty of Prairie View A&M University. The next year (1947) he was invited to join the mathematics faculty at Morgan State University.   
Lee Vernon Stiff  Mathematician  Lee Stiff was born was born in 1949. Stiff studied  mathematics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, graduating in 1971, and went on to earn a master’s degree from Duke University in 1974 and a doctorate in mathematics education from North Carolina State University in 1978. After teaching mathematics at the middle school and high school levels, and then holding a faculty position at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte beginning in 1978, he returned to NCSU in 1983 where he is currently a professor of mathematics education  in the College of Education. From 2000 to 2002, Dr. Stiff served as President of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), the largest organization of mathematics teachers with more than 100,000 members from all over the world.   
Charles Bernard Bell, Jr.  Mathematician  Charles Bernard Bell, Jr. was born on August 20, 1928 in New Orleans, Louisiana. At age 19 he graduated from Xavier University in 1947 with a B.S. Mathematics, received his M.S Mathematics and Statistics in 1948 from the University of Notre Dame and completed his Ph.D. in Statistics from the University of Notre Dame in 1953. Considered one of the leading African American mathematicians of the twentieth century, Bell became the second African American professor hired at San Diego State University in 1958, thus one of rare black professors at a predominantly white campus in that era.
Euphemia Lofton Haynes  Mathematician  Euphemia Lofton Haynes was born on Sept. 11, 1890 in Washington, D.C. Lofton graduated from Smith College in Northampton, Mass., with a bachelor’s degree in 1914. She received a master’s degree in education from the University of Chicago in 1930, and that same year she founded the mathematics department at Miner Teachers College (later the University of the District of Columbia),  an institution in Washington dedicated to training African American teachers. In 1943 Haynes became the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics from The Catholic University of America. She retired from teaching in 1959. After her death in 1980, The Catholic University of America used a bequest of $700,000 from her estate to endow a chair and establish a student loan fund in the education department.   
Walter McAfee Mathematician  Walter McAfee was born September 2, 1914 in Ore City, Texas. He received his BS degree in Mathematics (Magna Cum Laude) at Wiley College in 1934; his MS degree in Physics at the Ohio State University in 1937 and his Ph.D. in Physics at Cornell University (where he studied under Hans Bethe) in 1949. In 1942, McAfee joined the Army Signal Laboratory at Camp Evans (Ft. Monmouth). His calculations played a major role in the experiment on January 10, 1946, that bounced the first radar signals off the moon. McAfee was, in 1971, the first African  American employee of the US Army promoted to GS-16, a Civil Service "super-grade" status.   
Arlie Petters  Mathematician  Arlie Petters was born on February 8, 1964  in Dangriga, Belize. Petters earned a B.A./M.A. in  Mathematics and Physics from Hunter College, CUNY in 1986 and earned his Ph.D. in Mathematics in 1991 from Princeton University. His specialties are in mathematical physics, geometry and probability theory. Petters teaches quantitative finance in the Fuqua School of Business and works with MBA students to promote social entrepreneurship in science and technology in Belize and the developing world. He currently holds the Benjamin Powell endowed Chair at Duke University.   
Jonathan D. Farley  Mathematician  Jonathan D. Farley was born in 1970 in Rochester, New York. He graduated second in his class with an A.B. from Harvard University and obtained a mathematics Ph.D. from Oxford University where he was awarded the Senior Mathematical Prize and Johnson Prize for his research. Farley is currently a visiting Scholar in the Department of Mathematics at Harvard University. He started a company that does consulting for movies and television shows that have a math or science component, such the 2005 CBS crime-drama NUMB3RS or the films GOOD WILL HUNTING and A BEUATIFUL MIND.
Trachette Jackson  Mathematician  Trachette Jackson was born on July 24, 1972. In  1994, she received her B.S. degree in mathematics  from Arizona State University. Jackson earned her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Washington in 1996 and 1998, respectively. She completed postdoctoral positions with the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications at the University of Minnesota, and at Duke University. In 2000, Jackson joined the faculty at the University of Michigan as an assistant professor in the mathematics department. She was promoted to associate professor in 2003. In 2006, Jackson was appointed as the co-principal investigator of the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded University of Michigan SUBMERGE (Supplying  Undergraduate Biology and Mathematics Education Research Group Experiences) program.
. Ronald E. Mickens  Mathematician  Ronald E. Mickens was born on February 7, 1943 in  Petersburg, Virginia. In 1964, Ronald Elbert Mickens  graduated with a B.S. in mathematics and physics from  Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee and enrolled as a graduate student in Physics at Vanderbilt University with Woodrow Wilson and Danforth Scholarships. Mickens earned a Ph.D. in Theoretical Physics from Vanderbilt in 1968. From 1968 to 1970, Dr. Mickens had a postdoctoral position at M.I.T.  In 1970, Dr. Ronald E. Mickens was appointed a  professor of Physics at Fisk University where he  remained until 1982 when he became a Professor of Physics at Clark Atlanta University. In 1985 Dr. Mickens was named Callaway Professor of Physics at Clark Atlanta. His research is in Mathematics and Physics.   
Which action designed to oppose a political or business policy is closest to the  approach used by Martin Luther King, Jr.?  1. a war protester accepting a jail term rather than registering for the draft  2. a union picketer assaulting a strikebreaker  3. a government employee resisting arrest for failure to pay income taxes  4. dissatisfied workers destroying machinery in their factory   
a war protester accepting a jail term rather than registering for the draft     
The abolitionist movement, the women’s suffrage movement, and the 1960’s civil  rights movement are all examples of reform efforts that  1. succeeded without causing major controversy  2. developed significant popular support  3. achieved their goals without government action  4. failed to affect the nation as a whole
 developed significant popular support   
Which generalization can most accurately be drawn from a study of Supreme Court  cases Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education?  1. The Supreme Court has issued consistent decisions in cases involving rights  of the accused.  2. Supreme Court decisions are accepted without public controversy.  3. The Justices believe that social issues are best left for state courts to decide.  4. The Supreme Court has helped to determine public policy
   The Supreme Court has helped to determine public policy
The major goal of the civil rights movement of the 1960’s was to  1. establish a separate political state for African Americans  2. gain passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution  3. end segregation based on race  4. permit unlimited immigration to the United States   
 end segregation based on race     
An original purpose of affirmative action programs was to  1. increase educational and employment opportunities for women and minorities  2. improve the Amen can economy by guaranteeing that employees will be  highly skilled  3. decrease social welfare costs by requiring recipients of public assistance to  work  4. reduce the Federal deficit by increasing government efficiency   
 increase educational and employment opportunities for women and minorities     
Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court was considered "activist"  because of its  1. reluctance to overturn state laws  2. insistence on restricting freedom of speech to spoken words  3. expansion of individual rights in criminal cases  4. refusal to reconsider the issues of the Plessy v. Ferguson case   
 expansion of individual rights in criminal cases     
When necessary to achieve justice, which method did Martin Luther King, Jr., urge  his followers to employ?  1. using violence to bring about political change  2. engaging in civil disobedience  3. leaving any community in which racism is practiced  4. demanding that Congress pay reparations to African Americans   
engaging in civil disobedience     
The main goal of the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) was to  1. obtain equal rights for women  2. make the public aware of environmental problems  3. correct the abuses of big business  4. organize the first labor union in the United States
 obtain equal rights for women
When President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent Federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas,  during the 1957 school integration crisis, he was exercising his constitutional power  as  1. Chief Legislator  2. Commander-in-Chief  3. Chief Diplomat  4. Head of State   
"Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."  -Brown v. Board of Education    The effect of this Supreme Court ruling was to  1. establish affirmative action programs in higher education  2. require the integration of public schools  3. desegregate the armed forces and the military academies  4. force states to spend an equal amount on each public school student 
require the integration of public schools   
The decisions of the United States Supreme Court in Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v.  Wainwright, and Escobedo v. Illinois all advanced the  1. voting rights of minorities  2. guarantees of free speech and press  3. principle of separation of church and state  4. rights of accused persons
 rights of accused persons
After the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, African Americans  continued to experience political and economic oppression mainly because  1. the amendments were not intended to solve their problems  2. many African Americans distrusted the Federal Government  3. Southern legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws  4. poor communications kept people from learning about their legal rights   
Southern legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws   
The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 was primarily concerned with  1. carrying out Reconstruction in the South  2. limiting immigration to the United States  3. bringing about equal rights for women  4. promoting the settlement of western territories
bringing about equal rights for women   
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed in an effort to correct  1. racial and gender discrimination  2. limitations on freedom of speech  3. unfair immigration quotas  4. segregation in the armed forces   
racial and gender discrimination     
 “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’  has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”  —Brown v. Board of Education (1954) 

Which constitutional idea was the basis for this Supreme Court decision?  1. protection against double jeopardy  2. freedom of speech  3. right of assembly  4. equal protection of the law     
   equal protection of the law   
“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its  creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.’” —Martin  Luther King, Jr. Washington, D.C., 1963 

 Which step was taken following this speech to advance the dream of Martin Luther King,  Jr.?  1. desegregation of the Armed Forces  2. ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson  3. elimination of the Ku Klux Klan  4. passage of new civil rights acts   
passage of new civil rights acts   
Cesar Chavez created the United Farm Workers Organization Committee (UFWOC)  in 1966 primarily to  1. secure voting rights for Mexican Americans  2. improve working conditions for migrant laborers  3. provide legal assistance to illegal aliens  4. increase farm income   
improve working conditions for migrant laborers  
The federal voting rights laws passed in the 1950s and 1960s were designed to  1. return control of voting regulations to the states  2. remove racial barriers to voting  3. extend suffrage to American women  4. prevent recent immigrants from voting 
remove racial barriers to voting   
“I would agree with Saint Augustine that ‘An unjust law is no law at all.’ ” — Dr.  Martin Luther King, Jr. “Letter From Birmingham City Jail” This statement was used  by Dr. King to show support for  1. Social Darwinism  2. Jim Crow laws  3. separation of church and state  4. civil disobedience
civil disobedience
When Susan B. Anthony refused to pay a fine for voting illegally in the election  of 1872, she stated: “Not a penny shall go to this unjust claim.” Her action was  an example of  1. anarchy  2. judicial review  3. civil disobedience  4. vigilante justice   
civil disobedience     
Martin Luther King, Jr. first emerged as a leader of the civil rights movement when  he  1. led the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama  2. refused to give up his seat on a bus to a white man  3. challenged the authority of the Supreme Court  4. was elected as the first black congressman from the South   
led the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama     
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Fair Housing Act, and the Americans with  Disabilities Act were government efforts to  1. eliminate restrictions on immigration  2. end discrimination against various groups  3. provide federal aid for children  4. require equal treatment of men and woman
end discrimination against various groups   
The main goal of affirmative action programs is to  1. enforce racial segregation laws  2. secure equal voting rights for African Americans  3. provide affordable child care  4. promote economic gains for minorities and women   
promote economic gains for minorities and women   
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed in an effort to correct  1. racial and gender discrimination  2. limitations on freedom of speech  3. unfair immigration quotas  4. segregation in the armed forces
racial and gender discrimination   
Garrett Augustus Morgan  Garrett Augustus Morgan was born in Paris, Kentucky on March 4, 1877. Firefighters in many cities in the early 1900's wore the safety helmet and gas mask that he invented, and for which he was awarded a gold medal at the Second International Exposition of Safety and Sanitation in New York in 1914. The gas mask Morgan invented in 1912 was used during World War I to protect soldiers from chlorine gas fumes. After witnessing an accident between a horse-drawn carriage and an automobile, Morgan had an idea. His three-position traffic signal, patented in 1923, helped save lives at a time when cars, horses and pedestrians all shared the road. 
To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled, We the  undersigned, citizens of the United States, but deprived of some of the privileges and immunities of citizens among which, is the right to vote, beg leave to submit the following resolution:  Resolved; that we the officers and members of the National Woman Suffrage Association, in convention assembled, respectfully ask Congress to enact appropriate legislation during its present session to protect women citizens in the several states of this Union, in their right to vote. — Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1873) 
  Source: National Archives and Records Administration

 This resolution illustrates the constitutional right to  1. petition for redress of grievances  2. protection against unreasonable search and seizure  3. a speedy and public trial  4. freedom of religion     
 petition for redress of grievances 
In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court ruled that 
  1. states may not secede from the Union  2. all western territories should be open to slavery  3. racial segregation was constitutional  4. slaves are property and may not be taken from their owners
racial segregation was constitutional 
“. . . In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of  our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the ‘unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.’ It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked ‘insufficient funds.’ ”. . .  — Martin Luther King, Jr., August 28, 1963 
   The focus of this passage from Dr. King’s speech was his belief that 
  1. equal rights for all were guaranteed by the founders of this nation  2. Americans had become blind to racial differences  3. violence was often necessary for the protection of civil liberties  4. civil rights for African Americans would always be a dream
equal rights for all were guaranteed by the founders of this nation 
The program that promotes preference in hiring for African Americans and other  minorities to correct past injustices is known as 
  1. Title IX  2. open admissions  3. affirmative action  4. Head Start   
affirmative action
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. . . .”-19th Amendment, United States Constitution Which group of women worked for the passage of this amendment? 
  1. Harriet Tubman, Jane Addams, and Dorothea Dix  2. Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton  3. Madeline Albright, Geraldine Ferraro, and Sandra Day O’Connor  4. Clara Barton, Amelia Earhart, and Eleanor Roosevelt   
Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton 
“. . . I was disappointed not to see what is inside Central High School. I don’t understand why the governor [of Arkansas] sent grown-up soldiers to keep us out. I don’t know if I should go back. But Grandma is right, if I don’t go back, they will think they have won.  They will think they can use soldiers to frighten us, and we’ll always have to obey them.  They’ll always be in charge if I don’t go back to Central and make the integration happen. . 
  . .” — Melba Beals, Warriors Don’t Cry, an African American student, 1957 

President Dwight D. Eisenhower reacted to the situation described in this passage by 
  1. forcing the governor of Arkansas to resign  2. allowing the people of Arkansas to resolve the problem  3. asking the Supreme Court to speed up racial integration  4. sending federal troops to enforce integration     
 sending federal troops to enforce integration 
Filibusters were used by United States Senators from the South in the 1950s and 1960s to 
  1. block passage of civil rights bills  2. protest United States involvement in Vietnam  3. override presidential vetoes of environmental bills  4. gain approval of presidential appointments to the Supreme Court   
 block passage of civil rights bills 
The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 is often viewed as the beginning of the 
  1. temperance movement  2. women’s rights movement  3. antislavery movement  4. Native American Indian movement
women’s rights movement 
During the civil rights movement of the 1960s, activities of the Congress of Racial Equality, the National Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) illustrated that 
  1. all civil rights groups use the same tactics  2. different approaches can be used to achieve a common goal  3. organizational differences usually lead to failure  4. violence is the best tool for achieving social change   
different approaches can be used to achieve a common goal 
In 1954, the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka advanced the civil rights movement by 
  1. guaranteeing equal voting rights to African Americans  2. banning racial segregation in hotels and restaurants  3. declaring that racial segregation in public schools violated the 14th amendment  4. upholding the principle of separate but equal public facilities   
declaring that racial segregation in public schools violated the 14th amendment 
. . . Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once? . . . 
  — Henry David Thoreau, 1849 
  . . . But the great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right. My friends, don’t let anybody make us feel that we [are] to be compared in our actions with the Ku Klux Klan or with the White Citizens Council. There will be no crosses burned at  any bus stops in Montgomery. There will be no white persons pulled out of their homes and taken out on some distant road and lynched for not cooperating. There will be nobody amid, among us who will stand up and defy the Constitution of this nation. We only  assemble here because of our desire to see right exist. . .  — Martin Luther King, Jr., December 1955

Which statement most accurately summarizes the main idea of these quotations? 
  1. Revolution is inevitable in a democratic society.  2. Government consistently protects the freedom and dignity of all its citizens.  3. Violence is the most effective form of protest.  4. Civil disobedience is sometimes necessary to bring about change.   
Civil disobedience is sometimes necessary to bring about change.   
In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to 
  1. protect civil rights marchers  2. help African Americans register to vote  3. enforce a Supreme Court decision to desegregate public schools  4. end race riots resulting from a bus boycott   
enforce a Supreme Court decision to desegregate public schools 
The Equal Pay Act, the Title IX education amendment, and the proposed Equal Rights amendment (ERA) were primarily efforts to improve the status of 
  1. African Americans  2. Native American Indians  3. migrant workers  4. women   
The president acted as commander in chief in response to which event of the civil rights movement? 
  1. refusal of the governor of Arkansas to obey a federal court order to integrate  public schools in Little Rock  2. desegregation of the city bus system in Montgomery, Alabama  3. arrest of Martin Luther King Jr. during protests in Birmingham, Alabama  4. assassination of Medgar Evers in Mississippi   
refusal of the governor of Arkansas to obey a federal court order to integrate 
Lunch counter sit-ins and the actions of freedom riders are examples of 
  1. steps taken in support of the Americans with Disabilities Act  2. programs dealing with affirmative action  3. violent acts by the Black Panthers  4. nonviolent attempts to oppose segregation   
 nonviolent attempts to oppose segregation