BIOLOGY: Chapter 12 Vocabulary Words

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What is transformation?
Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria.
What is bacteriophage?
Virus that infects bacteria.
What is a nucleotide?
a unit that makes up a long molecule of DNA.
What is base pairing?
A principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.
What is Chromatin?
Tightly packed substance consisting of DNA.
What is histone?
Protein that is inside of DNA.
What is replication?
When a cell divides itself and then duplicates its DNA.
What is DNA polymearse?
The principle enzyme involved in DNA replication.
What is a gene?
coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell.
What is messenger RNA?
The RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions.
What is ribosomal RNA? 
Location in which the construction of a protein occurs.
What is transfer RNA?
RNA that transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by the messages in mRNA.
What is transcription?
The process in which RNA molecules are produced.
What is RNA polymearse?
An enzyme required for transcription to take place.
What is a promotor?
Regions of DNA that enzymes bind to.
What is an intron?
A nucleotide in the DNA of Eukaryota genes.
What is exons?
A DNA sequence that codes for proteins.
What is a codon?
A three letter "word" in mRNA's genetic code.
What is translation?
The process of decoding an mRNA message.
What is an anticodon?
an unpaired base in an tRNA molecule that is complementary to one mRNA codon.
What is mutation?
Mistakes in  DNA where an incorrect base is inserted or a base is skipped.
What is point mutation?
A gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides.
What is franeshift mutation?
A mutation in which a nucleotide is added or deleted in groupings of codons/
What is polyploidy?
A condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes.
What is operon?
A group of genes that operate together.
What is an operator?
A region in the operon which contains sever copies of DNA- binding protein
What is differentiation?
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function.
What is hox genes?
a series of genes that control the differentiation of the cells and tissues in the embryo.