Biology 1 Honors Final Exam Review

119 cards

Biology Final Exam Review For Ms. Le's Class. The Entire Review Packet That She Gave Us. 

Preview Flashcards

Front Back
During his voyage on the Beagle, Charles Darwin made many observations 
-in England -in N America -in S America -in Asia 
-in S America 
In the 1800s, Charles Lyell emphasized that 
-the human population will outgrow the available food supply -all populations evolve through natural selection -Earth is very young -gradual geological events in the past could explain the physical features of today's Earth. 
-gradual geological events in the past could explain the physical features of today's Earth. 
WHen a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is 
-natural selection -artificial selection -artificial variation -survival of the fittest 
-artificial selection 
Charles Darwin's observation that finches of different species on the Galapagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finch species 
-have grown larger since Darwin's visit -acquired traits through use and disuse-all eat the same type of food. -originated from a common ancestor 
-originated from a common ancestor 
Which of the following statements best describes the findings of Rosemary and Peter Grant's study of the Galapagos finches? 
-Finches with large beaks always outcompete finches with small beaks -Small finches reproduce more successfully than large finches -Food availability affected beak size -Beak size among finches did not affect reproductive success
-Food availability affected beak size 
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called 
-Timing isolation -Geographic isolation -Behavioral isolation -Genetic equilibrium 
-Geographic isolation 
A factor that keeps species separate is 
-Reproduction at different times -Incompatible reproductive structures -Different mating behaviors -All of the above 
-All of the above 
The length of time required for half of the radioactive isotope in a sample to decay is its 
-Half-life-Relative date -Radioactive date -Geologic time scale 
In the past, mass extinctions encouraged the rapid evolution of surviving species 
-By changing developmental genes-By providing new opportunities for them -Because they killed all organisms that had evolved together-Because they spared all organisms that had evolved convergently 
-By providing new opportunities for them 
One way master control genes, or homeotic genes, could have affected evolution is 
-By causing mutations in other genes-Through small changes in timing during embryonic development -Through the evolution of species -By leading to convergent evolution 
-Through small changes in timing during embryonic development 
Which of these labels for fossils in a museum display contains an error? 
-Dinosaur (MIddle Mesozoic) -Early Mammal (Middle Paleozoic) -Early Human (Late Cenozoic) -Early Marine Invertebrate (Early Paleozoic) 
-Early Mammal (Middle Paleozoic) 
An analysis of derived characters is used to generate a 
-fossil record -phylogenetic tree based on DNA structure -cladogram -traditional classification system 
What does a cladistic analysis show about organisms? 
-the relative importance of each derived character -The order in which derived characters evolved -the general fitness of the organisms analyzed -All traits of each organism analyzed 
-The order in which derived characters evolved 
Organisms in the domains Bacteria and Archaea were previously grouped in a kingdom called 
-Anamalia -Fungi-Monera -Eukarya 
Which of the following is not found in bacteria? 
-cell wall -membrane-bound nucleus -ribosome -plasma membrane 
-membrane-bound nucleus 
Unlike Bacteria, Archaea 
-have cell walls -are prokaryotes -have two plasma membranes-are thought to be closely related to eukaryotes 
-are thought to be closely related to eukaryotes 
A virus's DNA or RNA is surrounded by a(n) 
-protein coat -nuclear membrane -tail -endospore 
-protein coat 
Many cases of food poisoning are caused by bacterial 
-toxins-decomposition -resistance to antibiotics -sterilization 
Bacteria are sometimes called nature's recyclers because they 
-undergo conjugation -break down nutrients in dead organisms -can switch between respiration and fermentation -carry out photosynthesis 
-break down nutrients in dead organisms 
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all plants 
-are eukaryotic -have cell walls -produce seeds -are multicellular 
-produce seeds 
Seed-bearing plants differ from all other plants in that 
-they have vascular tissue -they do not have a gametophyte generation -their gametes do not require water for fertilization to occur -all of the above 
-their gametes do not require water for fertilization to occur 
Scientists hypothesize that the specialized reproductive structure that evolved most recently is the 
-seed-pollen grain -ovary -gametophyte 
An example of a monocot is a 
-moss -lily -fern -pine tree 
Which term below is least closely related to the others? 
Which of the following includes a plant embryo, a food supply, and a protective covering? 
-pollen grain -spore-seed-gametophyte 
In bryophytes, haploid reproductive cells are produced by the 
-haploid stage -diploid stage -gametophyte and sporophyte -all of the above 
-all of the above 
In liverworts, the sporophyte is produced by a structure shaped like a(n) 
-leaf -heart -liver-umbrella 
Which group of plants produces seeds that are "naked"? 
-bryophytes -pteridophytes -gymnosperms -angiosperms 
The presence of flowers and outer protective coatings of the seeds distinguishes 
-club mosses from mosses -angiosperms from gymnosperms -two classes of angiosperms -seed plants from seedless plans 
-angiosperms from gymnosperms 
In angiosperms, reproduction takes place in 
-leaves-flowers -cones-pollen 
The non-reproductive parts of a flower are the 
-carpel and stamens -filaments and anthers -stigma and style -sepals and petals 
-sepals and petals 
THe tough outer layer of a seed is called the 
-seed coat -fruit -nut -embryo wall 
-seed coat 
A ripened ovary that contains seeds is called a(an) 
Which type of plant lives the longest? 
-annual -biennial -perennial -none of the above 
What fruit-eating animal likely would ensure the widest dispersal of a plant's seeds? 
-rat -raccoon -bird -squirrel 
THe early growth stage of a plant embryo is called 
-fertilization -dormancy -germination -pollination 
Tree rings result from yearly activity in the 
-heartwood -vascular cambium -bark -cork cambium 
-vascular cambium 
In an angiosperm, pollen grains are produced in the 
-stigma -filament-carpel -anther 
During germination of many monocots, the developing shoot is 
-preceded by a protective sheath -protected by a hooked shoot tip -replaced by the cotyledon -covered by the first pair of leaves 
-preceded by a protective sheath 
In angiosperms, xylem consists of tracheids and 
-sieve-tube members -companion cells -vessel elements -parenchyma cells 
-vessel elements 
There is a one-way movement of water and minterals into the vascular cylinder of a root because 
-water molecules are in high concentration in the root's outer layer. -nutrients are in low concentration in the roots outer layer. -the roof pressure is low-the endodermis has waxy cell walls 
-the endodermis has waxy cell walls 
When a plant moves its sugars from its leaves to its roots, the sink is the 
-leaves-roots -stems -same as the source 
When a carnivorous plant captures and digests insects, the most important result is that it gains additional 
-oxygen -nitrogen -potassium -phosphorus 
The stomata of leaves are usually open in 
-light if a plant has enough water -light if a plant has too little water -darkness if a plant has enough water-darkness if a plant has too little water 
-light if a plant has enough water 
Which of the following is the source of most of a plant's mass? 
-water-air -soil -none of the above 
-none of the above 

(the actual answer was the stem, I believe) 
Which of the following is NOT one of the three mineral nutrients most commonly deficient in farm and garden soils? 
-calcium -phosphorus -nitrogen -potassium 
Both roundworms and rotifers have 
-radial symmetry -complete digestive tract -segmented body -gastrovascular cavities 
-complete digestive tract 
Organisms that spend their entire adult lives attached to one spot are said to be 
-sessile -heterotrophic -flagellated -symmetric 
A key characteristic of multi-cellular organisms is 
-highly specialized cells -interdependent layers -multiple cell layers -all of the above 
-all of the above 
A person who has trichinosis likely contracted it from 
-walking barefoot on soil infested with Trichinella worms -eating undercooked meat containing Trichinella cysts -mosquitoes -coming in contact with Trichinella-infested snails 
-eating undercooked meat containing Trichinella cysts
The fastest, most agile mollusks are the 
-gastropods-cephalopods -bivalves-rotifers 
Some type of body symmetry is found in all invertebrates EXCEPT 
-cnidarians -echinoderms -sponges -flatworms 
A "rotating wheel" of cilia surrounds the mouth of a 
-planarian -starfish -sea anemone -rotifer 
Typical primitive arthropods such as trilobites had bodies that were composed of 
-many segments -three segments -one segment -no segments 
many segments 
The body of an insect is divided into a 
-head and thorax -head and cephalothorax -head, thorax, and abdomen-cephalothorax and abdomen 
-head thorax and abdomen
Which insect is NOT classified in the same order as the others? 
-ants -crickets -bees -wasps 
How many pairs of legs are there on most body segments of a centipede 
-one -two -five -six 
Which of the following is NOT a likely reason for the evolutionary success of insects? 
-the ability to fly has enabled insects to colonize new habitats -Insects as a group are not very diverse because there are relatively few species-Insects use many sense organs to respond to stimuli -Many insects have a life cycle in which the young are very different from adults. 
-Insects as a group are not very diverse because there are relatively few species
Which arthropod does NOT belong with the others? 
-isopod -barnacle -shrimp -copepod 
Which modern-day arthropods are most similar to fossil trilobites 
-dragonflies-fiddler crabs -horseshoe crabs -praying mantises 
-horseshoe crabs 
Which of the following structures are missing from many salamanders that live on land? 
-lungs-kidneys -legs -eyes
Blood flows through the body of a fish in a 
-single-circuit open circulatory system -single-circuit closed circulatory system -double-circuit open circulatory system -double-circuit closed circulatory system
-single-circuit closed circulatory system 
Modern jawless fishes include 
-sharks -skates -lampreys -lungfishes 
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of most amphibians? 
-they live on land as adults -they breathe with lungs as adults -they have moist skin that contains mucus-secreting glands-they have scales and claws 
-they have scales and claws 
A four chambered heart is found in
-lizards -snakes-turtles-alligators 
The structure of a bird's heart ensures that 
-oxygen-rich blood never mixes with oxygen-poor blood -oxygen-rich blood is always pumped to the lungs-oxygen-poor blood is always pumped to the body -oxygen-poor blood never enters the heart 
-oxygen-rich blood never mixes with oxygen-poor blood 
Which of the following vertebrates has a heart with four chambers? 
-salamander -lizard-goldfish -cow 
Oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood undergo the least mixing in the heart of a 
-crocodile -turtle -snake-lizard 
Which of the following is NOT a function of skin 
-helps regulate body temperature -protects internal organs -contracts and relaxes muscles-helps prevent infection 
-contracts and relaxes muscles
Which of the following is NOT part of the integumentary system? 
-skin -cartilage -nails-hair 
The main function of the skill is to 
-produce blood cells -protect the heart and lungs-house and protect the brain -act like a lever for muscle attachment 
-house and protect the brain 
Where is the cardiac muscle tissue located in the body? 
-heart -ribs -skull-bones
Which of the following produce keratin 
-epidermal cells -sweat glands-adipose tissue cells -hair follicles 
-hair follicles 
What are the two layers of the skin? 
-keratin and dermis -epidermis and melanin -epidermis and dermis -melanin and keratin 
-epidermis and dermis 
Which of the following is a protein that makes up hair and nails? 
-sweat-melanin -collagen -keratin 
What is the skeleton of a newborn baby mainly composed of? 
-bone-cartilage -bone marrow -collagen 
Where is the protein called actin located in the body? 
-marrow -thin filaments -myosin filaments -hair 
-thin filaments 
When an action potential reaches the end of a neuron at a chemical synapse, it triggers the release of 
-neurotransmitters -sodium ions -dendrites-receptors 
The division of the nervous system that helps the body react to pain is the 
-somatic nervous system -sensory division -autonomic nervous system -sympathetic division 
-somatic nervous system 
What types of drugs generally slow down the activity of the central nervous system? 
-stimulants -depressants -opiates -cocaine
Which divisions of the peripheral nervous system transmits impulses from sense organs to the central nervous system? 
-sensory -motor -sensory and motor -spinal cord 
-sensory division 
Which of the five senses uses two types of photoreceptors called rods and cones? 
-vision -hearing-smell -taste 
Painful withdrawal symptoms can occur when a drug user attempts to stop using 
-opiates -cocaine-inhalants -marijuana 
Alcohol does each of the following EXCEPT 
-slow CNS activity -stimulate heart rate -impair judgement -disrupt coordination 
-stimulate heart rate 
Where does the process of chemical digestion begin? 
-stomach -esophagus -small intestine -mouth 
A calorie is the amount of energy needed to 
-raise the temperature of the body by 1 degree celsius -raise the temperature of 1 g of fat by 1 degree celsius -raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree celsius -none of the above 
-raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree celsius 
What does mechanical digestion in the stomach involve? 
-absorption of nutrients by villi -pepsin and bile -muscle contractions -bile and pancreatic fluid 
-muscle contractions 
What is the correct direction of blood flow? 
-right atrium--> right ventricle --> pulmonary artery -right atrium -->left atrium --> pulmonary artery -left ventricle --> pulmonary artery --> aorta -left ventricle--> left atrium --> aorta 
-right atrium--> right ventricle --> pulmonary artery 
Which of the following is NOT a function of blood? 
-regulate filtration -distribute hormones-transport nutrients-fight infections 
-regulate filtration 
The function of valves in the heart is to 
-stimulate the heartbeat -accelerate the flow of blood -prevent the backward flow of blood -serve as a cushion to prevent friction 
-prevent the backward flow of blood 
When infection occurs, the number of 
-RBC increases -RBC decreases -WBC increases-WBC decreases 
WBC increases 
Which of the following is not contained in tobacco? 
-carbon monoxide -caffeine -nicotine -ammonia 
The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by 
-toxins -pathogens -heredity -materials in the environment 
The body's nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens include 
-antibiotics -mucus, sweat, and tears -antibodies -T cells 
-mucus, sweat, and tears 
The inflammatory response can cause 
-permanent immunity -pain, swelling, and redness -antibodies to bind to antigens -T cells to attack infected cells 
-pain, swelling, and redness 
Humoral immunity originates from
-T cells -NK cells -B cells -macrophages
-B cells 
An infectious disease is one that is caused by 
-heredity -materials in the environment -pathogens -an organ transplant 
Which of the following is NOT a step in identifying the pathogen that causes a specific disease? 
-the pathogen should be found in the body of a healthy organism -the pathogen should be isolated and grown in a pure culture -the purified pathogens should cause the same disease in a new host -the pathogen should be isolated from the second host
-the pathogen should be found in the body of a healthy organism 
A person who has received a vaccine against polio 
-is able to produce antibodies against polio -is more susceptible to the polio virus than someone who has not had the vaccine -has polio antibodies in the bloodstream -has anti polio killer T cells in the bloodstream 
-is able to produce antibodies against polio 
Which of the following presents a risk of spreading HIV? 
-abstaining from sex -sharing a needle -kissing someone on the cheek -using a sterile needle to receive a medical injection
-sharing a needle 
Dialysis processes blood outside the body and 
-carries urine to the urinary bladder -pumps blood throughout the body -returns filtered blood to the body -forces water into cells and tissues by osmosis 
-returns filtered blood to the body 
Which gland fails to produce enough of its hormone in the disease diabetes mellitus? 
-adrenal -hypothalamus -pancreas -parathyroid 
Which of the following is NOT part of a nephron 
-urethra -tubule -glomerulus -Bowman's capsule 
What percentage of the filtrate's water that enters the Bowman's capsule is reabsorbed into the blood? 
-99-80-50-less than 25
In the kidneys, both useful substances and wastes are removed from the blood by
-reabsorption -excretion -dialysis -filtration 
When the hypothalamus detects a decreased solute concentration in the blood, it directs the kidneys (through the pituitary) to 
-excrete less urine -return more water to the blood by filtration -return more water to the blood by reabsorption -return less water to the blood by reabsorption 
-return more water to the blood by reabsorption 
During the menstrual cycle, high levels of LH cause the 
-corpus luteum to disintegrate -follicle to release a mature egg -uterine lining to detach from the uterus -the lining of the uterus to thicken 
-follicle to release a mature egg 
Which hormones stimulate sperm production 
-FSH and testosterone -estrogens -androgens -testosterone and progesterone 
-FSH and testosterone 
What is the result of gastrulation? 
-a blastocyst -a zygote -the amnion -three cell layers 
-3 cell layers 
Which of the following is NOT a function of the female reproductive system? 
-to produce eggs -prepare the body to carry an embryo -deliver sperm -release eggs into the oviducts 
-deliver sperm
Which organ system is responsible for making and delivering sperm? 
-female reproductive system -endocrine system -nervous system -male reproductive system 
-male reproductive system 
Which of the following are required for fertilization to occur inside the female body? 
-sperm must swim into an oviduct -an oocyte must be present in an oviduct -the nucleus of a sperm must fuse with an oocyte nucleus -all of the above 
-all of the above 
the placenta connects the 
-fetus to mother's uterus -ectoderm to endoderm -umbilical cord to mother's vagina -uterus to cervix 
fetus to mother's uterus 
Which cell structure contains the cell's genetic material? 
-organelle -nucleus -cell envelope -cytoplasm 
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration? 
-glycolysis, fermentation, Krebs cycle -Krebs cycle, electron transport, glycolysis -glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport -Krebs cycle, glycolysis, electron transport 
-glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport 
Cellular respiration is an aerobic process because it requires
-light -exercise-oxygen -glucose 
Which of the following is a phase of mitosis? 
-cytokinesis -interphase-prophase-s phase
Variation in human skin color is a result of 
-intermediate inheritance -codominance-polygenic inheritence -multiple alleles
polygenic inhereitance 
RNA contains the sugar 
-ribose -deoxyribose-glucose-lactose