Science Of Biology Test Review Flashcards

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Bio Test 3

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not a common energy carrier in the cell
Why are enzymes important?
because they allow reactions to occur at body temperature
The hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose is a spontaneous reaction. However, if you dissolve sucrose in water and keep the solution overnight at room temperature, there is no detectable conversion to glucose and fructose. Why?
The reaction requires a catalyst.
A "high-energy" bond in an ATP molecule is located between
two phosphate groups
What is the ultimate source of energy for most forms of life on Earth?
solar energy
All the following statements pertaining to catalysts are true EXCEPT
catalysts increase activation energy requirements.
Energy is transferred from one location to another in the cell
in the form of ATP
in electrons in an electron carrying molecule
FAD is an example of
an electron carrier
Most reactions in the body occur too slowly to sustain life. This is because
many reactions require large inputs of activation energy
Imagine a plant in your garden doesn't receive an adequate amount of water. Which of the following would be most affected by this?
both the light dependent and light independent reactions of photosynthesis
The primary function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is
to produce energy-rich ATP and NADPH
Water is required during which of the following reactions?
during the light-dependent reactions only
All of the following are part of the Calvin-Benson cycle EXCEPT
generation of ATP
During the process of photosynthesis, solar energy is converted into
chemical energy
Albino corn has no chlorophyll. You would expect these seedlings to
fail to thrive.
During photosynthesis when is CO2 is utilized?
during the light-independent reactions only
All of the following compounds are required (i.e., are necessary constituents for chemical reactions) at some state of green plant photosynthesis, EXCEPT
NADPH is synthesized during which of the following reactions?
during the light-dependent reactions only
ATP is required during which of the following reactions?
during the light-independent reactions only
When water supplies are plentiful for the plant
the stomata remain open
CO2 uptake will increase
The majority of the leaf's chloroplasts are found in what cells?
mesophyll cells
The NADPH required for carbon dioxide fixation is formed
during the light reactions.
A pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is
What happens to CO2 when it moves into the stroma?
It becomes a carbohydrate.
Where does the O2 released during photosynthesis come from?
What molecules are required for the C3 cycle?
CO2ATPRuBP enzyme
Imagine a scientist discovers a mutant plant seedling that appears to lack stomata. What would be the effect of this?
CO2 would not be able to enter as a reactant for photosynthesis.
Glucose synthesis requires which of the following?
Products of energy-capturing reactions must be available.
Enzymes are required during which of the following reactions?
during both light dependent and independent reactions
Carbon dioxide is required in the light-dependent reaction
Imagine you are conducting a photosynthesis experiment on a plant in the lab. You block any sunlight (or artificial light) from reaching the plant. Your teacher tells you that this will affect even the light independent reactions. Your classmate leans over to you and asks "If those reactions are not light dependent, how will they be affected?" What answer should you give him?
The light dependent reactions are needed to generate the energy required to make glucose.
Before photosynthesis evolved, ________ was rare in Earth's atmosphere
Energy is passed around different chlorophyll molecules until it reaches a specific chlorophyll molecule called the
reaction center.
The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis result in which of the following?
phosphorylation of ADP
Light-dependent photosynthetic reactions produce
Glucose is made during which reactions
light-independent reactions only
The products of photosynthesis are
glucose and oxygen
The term "cycle" is used to describe the light-independent reactions (Calvin-Benson cycle) because
the process begins and ends with RuBP.
Suppose you are studying photosynthesis in a research lab. You grow your plants in a chamber with a source of water that has a radioactively labeled oxygen atom. What photosynthetic product will be radioactive?
The electron transport chain receives electrons directly from
During glycolysis, what is the net gain of ATP molecules produced?
considered a waste product of cellular respiration
Carbon dioxide
What is the significance of the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid during fermentation?
NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
Both plants and animals perform
Krebs cycle.
As a biker pumps up a hill to the finish line of a race, his leg muscles are most likely
using lactic acid fermentation for ATP production.
What is the final electron acceptor in cellular respiration
In order to be able to continue, each turn of the Krebs cycle must regenerate
How many CO2 molecules are generated from each pyruvate that enters the mitochondria?
The end product of glycolysis is
the starting point for the fermentation pathway.pyruvate
The anaerobic breakdown of glucose is called
The products of the Krebs cycle include
energy carriers.ATPcarbon dioxide
In the matrix reactions, what happens to the original carbons in pyruvic acid?
hey are incorporated into molecules of NADH and FADH2.
During which part of aerobic respiration is the oxygen actually used
electron transport system
In the matrix, oxygen combines with ________ to form ________.
electrons and hydrogen ions; water
Which of the following is an example of an electron carrier molecule?
synthesized within mitochondriathe cell's principle compound for energy transfersa short-term, energy-storage compound the molecule all living cells rely on to do work
In human cells (muscle cells) the fermentation process produces
lactic acid
What results if glucose is metabolized under completely anaerobic conditions
Pyruvic acid is converted by fermentation into CO2 and ethanol or lactic acid
The products of glycolysis are
ATP, NADH, pyruvate
Where does the synthesis of pyruvic acid occur during glycolysis?
fluid portion of the cytoplasm
How does one account for the bubbles that "tickle your nose" when one drinks a glass of champagne?
The champagne was bottled while the yeast were still alive and fermenting, so bubbles of CO2 were trapped.
At the end of glycolysis, the original carbons of the glucose molecule form
two molecules of pyruvic acid
Which of the following processes require(s) oxygen directly
Where does fermentation occur within a cell undergoing anaerobic metabolism of glucose?
fluid portion of the cytoplasm
The metabolic breakdown of one molecule of glucose harvests the greatest amount of energy during
electron transport
In vertebrate animal cells, where does the synthesis of lactic acid occur
fluid portion of the cytoplasm
Why do you breathe more heavily during exercise?
because your cells are producing more CO2because your cells need more O2
For bacteria to continue growing rapidly when they are shifted from an environment containing oxygen to an anaerobic environment, they must
increase the rate of glycolytic reactions
During cell respiration, the pyruvate produced in glycolysis is
broken down to CO2 and water
transported to the mitochondria
converted to Acetyl CoA
the source of electrons for NADH and FADH2.
After fermentation, lactic acid is converted to pyruvic acid in the
Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration because oxygen
combines with electrons and hydrogen ions to form water.
If ATP is made in the mitochondria, how does it provide energy for reactions in the cytoplasm of the cell?
ATP diffuses out of the mitochondria into the cytoplasm.
How do fatigued human muscle cells repay an "oxygen debt"?
Lactic acid is converted back into pyruvic acid by the cells.
When oxygen is present
most cells utilize aerobic cellular respiration.
During the fermentation of one molecule of glucose, the net production of ATP is
two molecules.
During which of the following processes is CO2 produced?
Krebs cycle