Behaviour Modification Applications

112 cards

Exam Questions Behaviour Modification

Preview Flashcards

Front Back
Chapter 16 - 1- Define stimulus generalization and give an example that is not in this chapter ***
Stimulus generlization is the procedure of reinforcing a repsonse in the presence of a stimulus or situation, and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or sitiation. Basically, a person responds the same way to two different stimuli. An example of this would be: a child seeing a black cat and calling it a cat, then seeing a black dog and calling it a cat as well.
Unit 16 2) Explain the difference between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination. Describe examples illustrating the difference.
Stimulus generalization refers to the transfer, or reinforcing a response when another stimulation/situation and the effect of becoming more likely in its presence. Ex) Child in habit of swearing now swears in a different situation, at home, and there will be a different result than at school. Parents are likely to punish/reprimand the child’s word choice. Stimulus discrimination is a response occurring to a stimulus which will be reinforced. Ex) When a child sears at school, stimulus of peers increases this behaviour as they reinforce it.  
Chapter 16 - #4 What is a primary distinction between stimulus generalization involving a common-element stimulus class and stimulus generalization involving an equivalence class?
Common-class: more unlearned; same object but different form; common characteristics Equivalence class: more learned; one common element but different items; no common characteristics
Chapter 16 – 5. Define or describe unlearned response generalization due to physical similarity of responses, and give an example.
The more physically similar two responses are, the more unlearned response generalization will occur between them. If you learn a forehand shot in racquetball, chances are  that you would be able to perform a forehand shot in squash or tennis. The responses involved are very similar. Likewise, you will probably find roller blading easier to learn if you have already learned to ice skate because the responses involved in the two activities are similar.
 Chapter 16, question 11Briefly list four tactics for programming operant stimulus generalization. Give an example of each.
1. Train in the target situation.
 Make the final stages of the training situation as similar to the target situation in as many ways as possible. An example of this could be if a parent wants their child to count out the right change to buy a bag of candy. The ideal place to do this would be in a store that sells candy (of course, some preliminary training in a controlled setting may be necessary)

2. Vary the Training Conditions.
This might be done by conducting training sessions with relatively little control over the stimuli in the presence of which correct responses are reinforced. An example could be performing an experiment with various noises in the background such as traffic.

3. Program Common Stimuli.
This is done by developing the behaviour to specific stimuli that are present in both the training and target stimuli. An example could be a program in which social and academic classroom behaviours are taught to children in a remedial classroom. Generalization to the regular academic classroom was ensured by using the same academic materials in both classrooms.

4. Train Sufficient Stimulus Exemplars.
This technique increases the probability of appropriate generalization to new stimuli and situations because of the large number and variety of stimuli and situations to which training has occurred. An example could be training someone in different areas like in the schoolyard, classroom, home, etc.
Chapter 16 Question 15 Q: Describe the generalization strategy referred to as general case programming. Describe an example.
A: General case programming is a variation of training sufficient stimulus exemplars. This is where the instructor will introduce the range of relevant stimulus in which the learner will be expected to respond and response variations that might be required. For example, a teacher may have a variety of drink machines for a person with a developmental disability to learn how to use and the responses in which will make the vending machine produce the drink.
Chapter 16, Question 16
Briefly list three tactics for programming operant response generalization. Describe an example of each.

1. Programming operant response generalization -
Train sufficient response exemplars - a strategy for programming response generalization is similar to training sufficient stimulus exemplars to esyablish stimulus generalization.
Example: You are teaching your class how to distinguish between  odd and even numbers. 1 is odd 2 is even therefore 3 is odd and 4 is even. They are reinforced each time until they were capable of distinguishing odd and even numbers on their own   (p 195, 4).
2. Vary the acceptable response during training -
Varying the responses that are acceptable during training.
Example: Developing creativity and reinforced children during block building.  For any response that was different from prior block buliding responses. Therefore led to an increase in the childrens creative block building (p. 195, 5) * can't come up w/ my own example .
3. Capitalize on behavioral principles and procedures -
By capaitalizing on behavioral momentum, which is a momentary increase in the probability of some response occuring as a result of one or more functionally equivalent responses having been reinforced.
Example: You are teaching you're child how to do long division for their homework. As your child does one step correctly, you reinforce them by saying "Exellent job, go on keep going". You reinforce your son and shortly the hard part comes next. Your childs probability has increased the chances of doing the next step correctly (p 196, 1).

Chapter 16 19) Briefly describe four tactics for programming operant behaviour maintenance. Give an example of each.
1) Behaviour trapping is a method for programming operant behaviour maintenance in which the natural contingencies of reinforcement are allowed to take effect (p.196). For example, when teaching a child to walk, the teacher may use an object to coax the child towards it by walking. The sight of the object is an antecedent stimulus. Receiving the object is a reinforcer for the behaviour (walking). When the child learns how to walk, the natural environment has natural contingencies of reinforcement such as arriving at a place an individual wants to be at, that will program operant behaviour maintenance.             2) Change the behaviour of people in the natural environment is a method for programming operant behaviour maintenance which involves “actually changing the behaviour of people in the target situation so that they will maintain a learner’s behaviour that has generalized from the training situation”. For example, a child may be taught not to slap at daycare by punishing this undesirable behaviour with a timeout. This will be carried out during regular daycare days and not at a simulated training environment.             3) An intermittent schedule of reinforcement should be used in the target situation to develop behaviour persistances, resistance from extinction and allow it to become under the control of reinforcers found in the natural environment. For example, to program operant behaviour maintenance of eating vegetables at dinner, a parent may reinforce this desirable behaviour by allowing the child to have extra play time or a dessert.             4) An individual should be given control of their own behaviour to program operant behaviour maintenance. For example, if a soccer player completes his endurance training on his own schedule and records it, he should follow this desirable behaviour will reinforcement, for example buying a cold drink at the nearby convenience store, in order to produce behaviour maintenance.
Chapter 16 #21:Give two examples of pitfall type 1 involving stimulus generalization, one of which involves generalization of a desirable behaviour to an innappropriate situation and the other invovles generalization of an undesirable behaviour.
: An example of stimulus generalization of a desirable behaviour to an inappropriate situation can often be seen among individuals with developmental disabilities involving greetings and displays of affection. Of course, it is highly desirable for these behaviours to occur under appropriate circumstances, but when an individual walks up to and hugs a total stranger, the results can be less than favourable. An example of stimulus generalization of an undesirable behaviour from the situation it developed to a new situation for which it is also undesirable would be, suppose that an overly protective grandparent while supervising a grandchild who is learning how to walk provides a great deal of attention each time the child falls. As a result, falling increases in frequency. When the child returns to the parents, the excessive falling might generalize to their presence as well.
Chapter 17 Question 1 Define rule and give an example that is not in this chapter.
A rule describes a situation in which a behavior will lead to a consequence. Example:  If you don’t take your shoes off when you enter the house, you will have to wash the floor.
chapter 17, question 5 : Define contingency shaped behaviour and give an example
Behaviour that develops because of its immediate consequences is called contingency –shaped behaviour. For example operating the Blu-ray Disc Player by just pushing the buttons and adjusting what you push because of the consequences without“paying attention” to what you are doing.
Chapter 17 Question 14 In a couple of sentences, distinguish between rules that are often effective versus rules that are often weak or ineffective in controlling behaviour
Rules that describe a behaviour specially is more likely to be followed than a rule that describes a vague behaviour.  A rule that describes specific circumstances in which the behaviour should occur is more likely to be followed than a rule that describes the circumstances vaguely or not at all. Rules are likely to be followed if they identify behaviour for which the consequence are highly probable even though they might be delayed. Rules that describe sizeable consequences are likely to be effective.  Rules that describe specific circumstance sand deadlines for specific behaviours that will leave to sizable and probable outcomes are often effective even when the outcomes are delayed. 
Chapter 17 Question 17

Briefly list six of the eight conditions that summarize effective versus inneffective goal setting as a behaviour modification strategy.
1. Specific Goals are more effective than vague goals: Rather than a goal of having a better relationship, a couple might agree to spend half an hour of quantity time together or to tell each other daily at least three things that they appreciate about their relationship. Or instead of saying to just "lose weight", it is more effective to have a goal of losing 10 pounds.   2. Goals with respect to learning specific skills should include mastery criteria: A mastery criterion is a specific guideline for performing a skill so that if the guideline is met, the skill is likely to be mastered. This means that an individual who has met a mastery criterion for a skill has learned it well enough o perform it correctly upon demand or when it is necessary to do so.   3. Goals should identify the circumstances under which the desirable behaviour should occur: A goal for a wrestler to practice takedowns is somewhat vague. A goal to practice arm-drag take downs until three in a row occur adds a quantity dimension but still does not indicate the circumstances under which the behaviour should occur. A goal to practice arm-drag takedowns until three in a row occur on an opponent offering moderate resistance identifies the circumstances surrounding the performance   4. Realistic, challenging goals are more effective than do-your-best goals: A number of studies have demonstrated that do-your-best goals are not nearly as effective as are specific goals for improving performance. This may be because they are vague. An instructor who identifies with a specific goal for a learner is more likely to consistently provide reinforcement for meeting the goal than is an instructor who simply gives the learner a do-your-best goal.   5. Goal setting is more effective if deadlines are included: Each of us has a history of positive reinforcement for meeting various deadlines and for encountering aversive consequences when we don't meet them. Capitalizing on this history increases the effectiveness of goal setting.   6. Goal setting plus feedback is more effective than goal setting alone: Goals are more likely to be met if feedback indicates the degree of progress toward the goal. One way of providing feedback is to chart the progress being made.

goal setting is most effective when individuals are committed to the goals
public goals are more effective than private goals
CHAPTER 17 18. What is a mastery criterion? Describe an example that is not in this chapter.
A mastery criterion is a specific guideline for performing a skill, so that when the guideline is met, the skill is likely to be mastered. In other words, when an individual has met a mastery criterion for a skill, they have learned it well enough that they can perform it correctly when asked or when it is necessary. An example of mastery criterion would be an actor reciting his lines in a play.
CHAPTER 18 2. List four strategies that you might follow to influence the effectiveness of modeling as a behavior modification technique.
-       Arrange for peers to be models -       Arrange for the modeled behaviour to be seen to be effective -       Use multiple models -       Combine modeling with rules  
Chapter 18  4. What does symbolic modeling mean?  Describe how this might explain how a city-dwelling child might learn to fear snakes.
Modeling is a procedure that uses an individual to demonstrate a given behaviour to another individual to try to get that individual to take part in a similar behaviour.   A type of modeling is symbolic modeling.  Symbolic modeling is when the modeling procedure is demonstrated through the presentation of modeling scenes through films, videos, and other media.    A city dwelling child might learn to fear snakes through symbolic modeling if they watch films of a child being eaten by snakes, attacked by snakes or poisoned by snakes while they are out of the city on vacation.  In this example, through symbolic modeling the child may learn that if he leaves the city snakes will come and harm him.
Chapter 18 Question 10 - what is generalized imitation, describe and example.
10. “Generalized imitation: an individual after learning to imitate a number of behaviours, learns to imitate a new response on the first trial without reinforcement. Example: helping an individual who is terrified of water might involve gradually leading the individual by the hand into the shallow end of a swimming pool and providing support while the individual floats.”
Chapter 18 – question 12 12.) Describe each of the four proposed categories of situational inducement.
 Categories of Situational Inducement: o        Rearranging surroundings to create an environment that promotes the behaviour through physical surroundings
E.g.) to increase study behaviour--clear desk of clutter and non-study related items, move the desk so it is facing the wall, as far away from the bed as possible, improve the lighting o        Moving activity to a new location—move to a location that will be more conducive to the behaviour that you want to achieve. 
E.g.) move to a library where the atmosphere is conducive to studying rather than get distracted at home by many other things   o        Relocating people– if you move people out of an environment that generally reinforces a problematic behaviour, then it will be less likely to occur. (generally a last resort)
E.g.) if two girls are always talking during class, move them apart so that they are less likely to talk during class.         ·         Changing the time of the activity—certain stimuli/behavioural tendencies change in predictability with the passage of time
E.g.) – if you are tired in the evenings and are less likely to want to exercise, then try exercising in the morning when you have more energy and are more willing.  
Chapter 18 8.  What does the term physical guidance mean?  How does it differ from gestural prompting?
Physical guidance is the application of physical contact to induce an individual to go through the motions of a desired behavior.  Gestural prompting are certain motions one may make to show an individual what to do without actually touching him or her.
Chapter 17, #6 - Define rule governed behaviour and give an example
Rule governed behaviour is behaviour that is controlled by the statement of a rule.
If everyone listens to the coach carefully and does not whisper while he is talking there will be an extra five minutes of scrimmage at the end of each practice.
Chapter 17, Question 21.  What do the authors mean by commitment in the context of goal setting?
By commitment, we mean statements or actions by the learner indicating that the goal is important, the learner will work toward it and the learner recognizes the benefits of doing s
Chapter 19, Question 1: How do many people who are not behaviourists or behaviour modifiers conceptualize motivation? Illustrate with an example.
People who are not behaviourists or behaviour modifiers often conceptualize motivation as some “thing” within us that causes our actions. Claiming that “Howard is a good worker because he is highly motivated” is an example of this concept of motivation.
Chapter 19 – Question #2

What is the conceptual problem with the traditional view of motivation?
The conceptual problem with the traditional view of motivation is that it is believed that motivation is something that we either have or don’t have.  For example, a gymnast who completes 5 stuck beam routines would be viewed as having more motivation than a gymnast who completes 1.
Chapter 19 3. Q) Describe three practical problems with conceptualizing motivation as an internal cause of behaviour
a)      First, the suggestion that the causes of behaviour are inside of us rather than in the environment might influence some to ignore the principles for changing behaviour described in earlier chapters and the enormous amount of data demonstrating that application of those principles can effectively modify behaviour. b)      Second, conceptualizing motivation as an internal cause of behaviour may influence some to blame the individual for substandard performance by attributing this to a lack of motivation, or laziness, rather than trying to help such individuals to improve their performance. c)      Third, conceptualizing motivation as an internal cause of behaviour may influence some to blame themselves for failures to emit various behaviours (e.g., "I just can't get motivated to go on a diet") rather than examining potential self-management strategies (see Chapter 26) for improving their performance.
Chapter 19 Question #5. Define motivating operation. Describe an example that illustrates both aspects of the definition.
Motivating operation (MO) is an event or operation that: temporarily alters the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher and influences behaviour that normally leads to that reinforcer or punisher. MEO is an event or operation that temproarily increases the effectivenss of a reinfocer or punisher and that incrases the likelihood of behviours that lead to that reinforcer or decrease the likeihood of the behaviours that lead to that punisher. MAO is an event or operation that temporarily decreases the effectivenss of a reinforcer or punisher and decreases the likelihood of behaviours that normally lead to that punisher. Food deprivation is an MEO, food satiation is an MAO.
Unit 19 12) Define Echoic, and describe and example that is not in this book.
Echoic is a vocal imitative response that is developed and maintinaed by social reinforcement.
If a parent says " say garbage" and the child says " garbage" then receives praise, then that word garbage is an echoic
Chapter 19 – 14. Define mand, and describe an example that is not in the book.
A mand is a verbal response that is under the control of a motivating operation and is reinforced b y the corresponding reinforcer or removal of the corresponding aversive stimulus. Example from text: If a child is thirsty and asks a parent for “water”, the child’s response “water” is a mand. The same spoken word, water, is considered to be a different verbal response (eg. An echoic, a tact, a mand) depending on its controlling variables.
Chapter 19 Question 13 - Define tact and describe an example that is not in this book.
A tact is a naming response that is developed and maintained by social reinforcement . If an instructor asks how many hours should be spent studying and the students respond 2, then te instructor gives praise. 2 is a tact.
Chapter 20 Question 2 Define behavioural assessment
Behavioural assessment involves the collection and analysis of information and data in order to a) identify and describe target behaviour; b) identify possible causes of the behaviour; c) select appropriate treatment strategies to modify the behaviour; and d) evaluate treatment outcome.  
Chapter 20  Question 3 Q: List the four phases of a behaviour modification program.
A: The four phases of a behaviour modification program are the screening phase, the pre-program assessment phase, the treatment phase, and the follow-up phase
chapter 20 question 5: What two things typically occur during the assessment phase of a behaviour modification program?
During the assessment phase the behavior modifier assesses the target behavior to determine its level prior to the introduction of the program or tteatment
Also they analyze the individuals current enviroment to identify possible controlling variables if the behavior to be changed
Chapter 20 7) What is the purpose of the follow-up phase of a behaviour modification program?***
“to determine whether the improvements achieved during treatment are maintained after the program’s termination.”Observations in the natural environment
Chapter 20 Question 12 List the five main types of indirect assessment procedures.
1.          interviews with the client and significant others 2.         questionnaires 3.         role-playing 4.         information from consulting professionals 5.         client self-monitoring  
Chapter 20 Qustion 9 Briefly distinguish between direct and indirect assessment procedures.
Direct Assessment procedures are judgments based on information about a behavior by directly observing it whereas Indirect Assessment procedures are judgments based on information about a behavior by not directly observing that behavior.
Chapter 20Question 21:  How does a behavioural approach differ from a traditional approach to assessment in terms of a basic assumption about performance on a test or checklist***
Behavioural approach - Performance on a checklist is a sample of a persons response to specific stimuli
Psychodiagnostic approach - Test performacne is viewed as a sign of an enxuring instrapschic trait or person variable
  Chapter 20 Question 22 – Describe two differences in the goals of a behavioral approach to assessment compared to a traditional approach?
Behavioural approach – 1) To identify behavioural excesses or deficits 2) to idenfity environmental causes of current problem behaviours Traditional approach – 1) to diagnose or classify individuals 2) To identify intrapsychic or trait causes of behaviour
Chapter 20 #23 Describe a difference between the method of a behavioural approach compared to a traditional approach to assessment.
A difference between the behavioural approach and the traditional approach to assessment is that in a behavioural approach the client is assessed through direct observation of specific behaviours while in the traditional approach direct assessment of intrapsychic factors and underlying traits is impossible(by definition).  
Chapter 21 question 10 What is another word for the intensity of the response? Describe an example in which it would be important to measure the intensity of the behaviour?
Another word for intensity of a behaviour is magnitude or force. An example of a situation where it would be Important to measure the intensity of the behaviour could be a baseball pitcher trying to learn how to through fast balls. By measuring how fast a he throws a baseball, one can determine the speed and could be used to infer the force with which the baseball was propelled.
CHAPTER 21 12. Name the six levels that the ABLA assesses.
Level 1, imitation Level 2, position discrimination Level 3, visual discrimination Level 4, visual match-to-sample Level 5, auditory discrimination Level 6, auditory-visual combined discrimination  
Chapter 21 Question 15. What do we mean by the latency of a response?Describe an example
15.Latency is the amount of time that passes between the presentation of a stimuli and the onset of a specific behaviour. My co-worker complains endlessly so much so that I escape by walking away. Latency is the amount of time between the onset of her complaining stimuli and my walking away behaviour
  Chapter 21 21.  Define time sampling recording.  Give an example
Time sampling recording scores a behavior as occurring or not occurring during very brief observation intervals that are separated from each other by a much longer period of time.  For example, a parent who is worried about her son mouthing (hands or objects in his mouth) may use time sampling as it is impossible for her to observe her son 24/7.  Every hour she will observe him for 30 seconds and record if the behavior had occurred or not.
CHAPTER 21 17. Define continuous recording. Describe an example that is not in this chapter.
Continuous recording is the recording of every instance of a behavior during a designated observation period. A continuous recording system is commonly used when successive responses are quite similar in duration. An example of a behaviour that could be measured using continuous recording is the frequency of swearing.
Chapter 21  20.  When would one likely select an interval-recording system over a continuous recording system?
A continuous recording system is the recording of every instance of a behaviour during a designated observation period.  It is commonly used when successive responses are quite similar in duration, such as the number of cigarettes smoked.  If the responses are of a variable duration, like time spent watching TV or off-task behaviour in a classroom, interval recording is often used.  An interval recording system logs the behaviour as either occurring or not occurring during short intervals of equal duration (eg.  Intervals of 10 seconds) during the specified observation periods (such as 30 Minutes).
Chapter 21, querstion 22 Briefly describe momemtary time-sampling recording
22. “Momentary time sampling, a behaviour is recorded as occurring or not occurring at specific points in time, such as every hour on the hour rather than during specific brief intervals.”  
Chapter 21  - Question 24  24. In a sentence or two, what do we mean by interobserver reliability? (Describe in words. Don’t just give the procedures for calculating an IOR.)

Interobserver reliability is when there are two or more independent observers recording observations of the same behaviour of the same individual during the same session. They are careful not to influence or signal each other while they are recording or to peek at each other’s observations.  This is important to compare results and see if there is consistency.
Chapter 22, Question 4: Define dependent variable, and give an example.
In research terminology, the measure of behaviour is referred to as the dependent variable. In the example of Kelly, who underwent a treatment program to improve her frequency of successfully completing mathematics problems in her daily math class, correctly completing math problems was the dependent variable.  
Chapter 22 – Question #5 - define independent variable and give an example

An independent variable is that variable within an experimental research design that should have an effect on the dependent variable.  Usually the independent variable is the treatment in the experimental design.  For example, a researcher does an experiment on the effect of a type of drug (independent variable) on bipolar disorder (dependent variable).  If the treatment is effective, bipolar disorder symptoms will decline.
 Chapter 22 Question 6. Q) Define internal validity.
A) “A study or experiment is said to have internal validity if it convincingly demonstrated that the independent variable caused the observed change in the dependent variable.”
Chapter 22 Question #7.  Define External validity
Question #7. External validity is extent to which a finding of a study or experiment can be generalized to other behaviours, individuals, settings and treatments
Unit 22 8) With reference to an example, briefly describe the 4 components of the reversal-replication design. What is another name for this design?
The reversal-replication design has also been names the ABAB design or the withdrawal design.  The first component is the baseline phase where a child’s ability to do math problems is gauged for a certain length of time. The second component is the first treatment phase where the teacher uses a form of treatment to enhance the child’s ability to do the math problems. This session lasts longer than the baseline phase and is accompanied with an improvement in behaviour. The third component is the reversal phases when the treatment or methods the teacher used are removed. This phase has the same duration as the previous phase and is accompanied by a decline in the student’s ability. In this example the teacher removes the treatment and the child continues to struggle with math problems again. The final component is the second treatment phase where the treatment is administered again and the child is able to correctly answer math problems again.
Chapter 22 - #15 With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-behaviours design.
Billy will not do his math problems. He might undergo a multiple-baseline-across-behaviours design. First the teacher would create a baseline for two or more behaviours concurrently. Teacher might combine creative writing ability, solving math problems and grammar. This design assumes that each behaviour is independent so treatment is applied separately. First she would apply  to the math problem behaviour. Once the desired behaviour increased, she would start to reinforce the second behaviour. Then once she accomplished that step, she continues on to the next behaviour. This controls all the behaviours at once.
Chapter 22–17. With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-situations design.p.273
It involves establishing baselines for two or more of an individual’s behaviours followed by introducing the treatment sequentially across those behaviours. For a teacher that wants to demonstrate the effects of the reinforcement procedure on the child’s academic performance without doing a reversal which would risk losing the improvement the teacher would start with the first step to apply this design might be to record Kelly’s performance in solving math problems during math class as well as in spelling and sentence writing during language arts. The treatment of an extra minute of recess per correct problem might have been introduced in math class while the other baseline conditions might have been continued during language arts. If the results were those shown in figure 22-3, the teacher might next have introduced the treatment for the second behaviour by allowing an extra minute of recess for each word Kelly spelled correctly. Finally the teacher might have introduced the treatment of the third behaviour – sentence writing. If the results were those shown in figure 22-3, the behaviour changed only when the treatment was introduced.    
Chapter 22 Question 19 With reference to an example, briefly describe a multiple-baseline-across-people design.
A multiple-baeline-across-people design involves establishing baselines for a specific behaviour across two or more people concurrently followed by the introduction o the treatment sequentially to each person. An example can be seen in a program designed to improve public speaking. Three individuals were recorded during initial public speaking sessions. The first individual was then given treatment while the other two stayed on the baseline. Exposure to the treatment improved the public speaking of the first individual. The treatment package was then introduced sequentially to the second individual and then the third individual, both of which led to improvements in their public speaking as well. This shows convincing evidence of the program’s effectiveness.  
Chapter 22  Question 21 Q: With reference to an example, Briefly describe the changing-criterion design.
A: The changing-criterion design is a design in which the control that a treatment exerts on an individuals behaviour is evaluated by introducing successive changes in the behavioural criterion for application of treatment. An example would be a person and their exercise program in regards to running on a treadmill. The person would have a start rate and each phase would gradually increase the rate at which the person would run and when the person would meet these goals at the end of every phase they would receive a ticket for a backup reinforcer at the end.
Chapter 22 Question 22. With reference for an example, briefly describe an alternating-treatment design. What is another name for this design? Explain when and why that name might be preferred.

Experimental designs are ideally suited for demonstrating that a particular treatment need responsible for a specific change in behavior. Nonetheless of you wanted to compare different treatments for a single individual multiple baseline designs are not suitable. Therefore alternating-treatment designs  also known as multielement design would be more appropriate. Multielement includes alternating two or more treatment conditions, one condition per session, to assess their effects on a single behavior of a single individual (p 277, 1) .
Chapter 23 1) A functional assessment of the causes of a problem behaviour involves asking what two questions?
1) What are the antecedents of the behaviour? 2) What are the immediate consequences of the behaviour?
Chapter 23 #2:Briefly describe three ways to discover controlling variables of problem behaviour
1.       1)Questionnaire Assessment: Administer a questionnaire with a series of relevant questions that people familiar with the client are asked.   2.      2)Observational Assessment: Involves performing an observational or descriptive assessment in which the observational assessor carefully observes and describes the antecedents and immediate consequences of the problem behaviour in its natural settings. From these descriptions, the assessor forms hypotheses about the antecedent stimuli, motivational variables, and consequences controlling the problem behaviour.  3)
3.      Functional Analysis:  The systematic manipulation of environmental events to experimentally test their role as antecedents or as consequences in controlling and maintaining specific problem behaviours. In this procedure, also called experimental functional assessment, the therapist directly assesses the effects of potential controlling variables on the problem behaviour.
Chapter 23 Question 5 Describe three limitations of functional analyses.
1.          Many behaviors occur at frequencies of less than one per day so this form of analysis would take     a great deal of time before sufficient data can be obtained to draw valid conclusions. 2.         This type of analysis cannot be applied to extremely dangerous behaviors, such as suicide     threats. 3.         This type of analysis requires scheduling a number of observational sessions making the expense   and personnel requirements prohibitive.
Chapter 23 Question 6 - What are trhee indicators that a problem behaviour is maintained by the social attentio taht follows it
a) whether attention reliably follows the behavior B) Whether the individual looks at or approaches a caregiver just before engaging in the behaviour. C) Whether the individual smiles just before engaging in the behavior
Chapter 23 Question 12 What is a strong indicator that problem behaviour is being maintained as a way of escaping from demands?  Give and example illustrating this indicator. 
The individual engaged in the behaviour only when certain types of requests are made.    For example, when requested to answer difficult questions, some children might engage in tantrums that are strengthened the withdrawal of the request. 
Chapter 23 #14 What are the two main indicators that a problem behaviour is a respondent behaviour that is elicited by prior stimuli(versus operant behaviour being maintained by reinforcing consequences). Give an example
The two main indicators that a problem behaviour is a respondent behaviour that is elicited by a prior stimuli are that the problem behaviour consistently occurs in a certain situation or in the presence of certain stimuli and that it is never followed by any clearly identifiable reinforcing consequence. An example would be a guy being rude to his sister every time his guys friends are over.
Chapter 24  1. How does a behavior modifier evaluate the importance of a problem?
By asking two questions: Will solving the problem lead to less aversiveness or more positive reinforcement for the clients or others? And will solving the problem be likely to give rise directly or indirectly to other desirable behaviors? If either of the answers is no then you could reconsider your involvement with the problem.
CHAPTER 24 3. How does a behaviour modifier evaluate the ease with which a problem might be solved?
A behaviour modifier considers whether the problem is to decrease an undesirable behaviour, and if the behaviour has been occurring for a short time, under narrow stimulus, and with no intermittent reinforcement. A problem with these characteristics would be easier to solve than an undesirable behaviour that has been occurring for a long time, under control of many stimuli and with intermittent reinforcement. If the problem is to teach a new behaviour, the behaviour modifier must assess whether the client has prerequisite skills. And if there are multiple problems, rank them according to priority for treatment and begin with the highest priority.
Chapter 24 Question 9 - You are about to design a treatment program. After defining the target behavioura nd identifying its desired level of occurrence and stimulus control, what five questions should you answer before proceeding to the design?
9. Before you design your behaviour modification program the five questions that must be answered are: 1. Is your description exacting enough? 2. How did you select the goal and is it in the clients best interest? 3. Has the client been informed as to what the exact goal is and how you intend to achieve it? 4. Has the client bought into the program and are they committed to the goal. 5. What else may occur when for the client and others when the goal is achieved
CHAPTER 24  10. If you are thinking of capitalizing on antecedent control, what six categories should you consider?
            Can you use: -       Rules -       Goals -       Modeling -       Physical Guidance -       Situational inducement (rearrange the surrounds, move the activity to a new location, relocate people, or change the time of the activity) -       Motivating operations
Chapter 24  15.  What is a behavioral contract? (Answer page 301)
A behavioural contract is a written agreement that provides a clear statement of what behaviours of what individuals will produce what reinforcers and who will deliver those reinforcers.  A behavioral contract can be used between two or more individuals, such as between a teacher and students, parents and child, behaviour modifier and client.  
Chapter 24 16.  What is a treatment contract and what should it clearly outline?
A treatment contract is a written agreement between the client and the behavior modifier.  It clearly outlines the objectives and methods of treatment, the framework of the service to be provided, and contingencies for remuneration that may be forthcoming to the behavior modifier.
Chapter 25 Question 1 - What are tokens?
1.       “Tokens are reinforcers that can be accumulated and exchanged for goods and services. “
Chapter 25.
2.) What is a token economy?         
A token economy is a program in which a group of individuals can earn tokens for a variety of desirable behaviours, and can exchange tokens earned for backup reinforcers.
Chapter 25, Question 4: List at least five settings in which token economies have been used.
Token economies have been used in psychiatric wards, institutions and classrooms for persons with developmental disabilities, classrooms for children and teenagers with attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), normal classroom settings ranging from preschool to college and university, homes for troubled children, prisons, the military, wards for the treatment of persons with drug addiction or alcoholism, nursing homes, and convalescent centers.  
Chapter 25 – Question #5
List at least Five behaviours that token economies have been designed to develop
Five behaviours that token economies have been designed to develop are: control children’s behaviour, treat marital discord, increase safety behaviour, decrease absenteeism and enhance on-the-job performance
Chapter 25       7.      Q) List and briefly describe six initial steps involved in setting up a token economy.
     a)      Deciding on target behaviours. This involves deciding on and clearly defining the target behaviours “so that the students know what behaviours are expected of them and so that you can reinforce those behaviours reliably when they occur.”       b)      Taking baselines. Record data on the target behaviour before the implementation of the behaviour modification program so its effectiveness can be properly assessed.       c)      Selecting backup reinforcers. This involves deciding on what can be purchased with tokens obtained during the program.      d)     Selecting types of tokens used. “In general, tokens should be attractive, lightweight, portable, durable, easy to handle, and, of course, not easily counterfeited.”       e)      Identifying available help.  “Help might be obtained from a number of sources: (a) people already assigned to work with the individuals of concern (e.g., nurse's aides, teaching assistants), (b) volunteers (e.g., homemakers, senior citizens, members of civic organizations and community action groups), (c) behaviourally advanced individuals within the institution (e.g., older students assigned to help younger students), and (d) members of the token economy itself.”       f)       Choosing locations. If possible, choose a location which suites the needs of your token economy, such as having a larger classroom with movable desks when group work is required.
Chapter 25 Question #12. What do you think are some advantages in having members of the token economy themselves function as the main source of help?
Some advantages in having members of the token economy themselves function as the main source of help are learning responsiblitiy and learning how to function effectively without supervision. . This may make it easier for the client to keep up the reinforced behaviour in an uncontrolled setting. It basically helps the client learn skills themselves, without guidance of an outside person.
Unit 25 22) What is one precaution to help ensure high ethical standards for a token economy?
One precaution to help ensure high ethical standards for a token economy is to make the system completely open to public scrutiny, this provides a sense of accountability to those administering the treatment.
Chapter 26 - #1 What do people seem to mean when they talk about will power? Is willpower a useful concept? Why or why not?
They describe willpower as some magical force within us that is responsible for overcoming problems. It is not a useful concept to use because people fail to describe how to obtain willpower. They fail to analyze the other factors that cause problems.  
26 – 11. How does this book define commitment? Pg. 324
Commitment to change refers to your statements or actions that indicate that it is important to change your behaviour, that you recognize the benefits of doing so, and that you will work toward doing so.
Chapter 26 Question 12 Describe five steps that you could take to strengthen and maintain your commitment to a program of self control
1. List all the benefits for changing your behaviour. Write them out and post them in a conspicuous space.
2. Make your commitment to change public. Increasing the number of people who can remind you to stick to your program increases your chances of success.
3. Rearrange your environment to provide frequent reminders of your commitment and goal. You could write index cards or take photographs and leave them in different areas of your house.
4. Invest considerable time and energy in initially planning your project. Prepare a list of statements related to your investment in your project so you can use those statements to help strengthen and maintain your commitment.
5. Plan ahead for various ways to deal with obstacles and temptations that may arise and make you want to quit your project.
Chapter 26  Question 14 Q: Describe an example that illustrates how recording and graphing of a problem behaviour was all that was needed to bring about improvement.
A: Recording data and graphing it can bring about improvements in a target behaviour on its own because seeing the data may act as reinforcement. For example a smoker may want to cut down on smoking and may record every time he/she has a smoke. They may then mentally make a goal to try to have less tally’s on the paper everyday. Seeing less tally’s may then reinforce and prompt the smoker to keep up the hard work.
Chapter 26, Question 16
16. List seven major classes of antecedents that you might consider when planning how to mamage the situation in a self control program (p 327).
1.Instructions 2. Modeling 3. Physical Guidance 4. Our Immediate Surroundings 5. Other People 6. The time of Day 7. Motivating Operations

Chapter 26 18) Define mastery criterion, and describe an example that is not in the text.
Mastery criterion is “performance requirements for practicing a skill so that if the criteria are met, the behaviour has been learned” (p. 328). For example, hitting three “out-of-the-park” hits in baseball in a row.
Chapter 26 Question 22 Describe 3 different ways of arranging for reinforcers to be received in a self control program in a sentence or two for each.***
1. By asking others to manage reinforcers for you is an effective way to receive reinforcers.  In an example, Mary decided to start a jogging program where she would get money immediately after jogging as well as a social activity with her husband and if she met her goal, her husband would dispense the reinforce. 2. You could remind yourself of delayed natural consequences for a behavior immediately after it occurs.  For example, Christmas shopping….if you start buying earlier in the year you can take advantage of sales and not so crowded malls! 3. Individuals can manage consequences for themselves, for their own behavior
Chapter 26 Question 27        Briefly describe two possible causes of relapse in consequences, and indicate how each might be handled.
1.          Failure to incorporate everyday rewards into your program may cause decreased enthusiasm as      the extra work of recording, graphing, etc become burdensome, so  to handle this -- link your     self-control program to everyday rewarding activities, ie. to get exercise if you like to watch           videos, is to walk to the video store each time. 2.         Consequences that are only cumulatively significant are easy to ignore once you have reached             your goal, so to prevent a relapse  - set specific dates for postchecks and list specific strategies         to follow if the postchecks are unfavourable, ie. weigh yourself.
Chapter 27   Question 1 – What are cognitive processes?
Cognitive processes refer to covert verbalization and/or imagery that are frequently called believing, thinking, expecting or perceiving.  
Chapter 27 question 2 For what do the letters ABCT stand for?
Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies  
Chapter 27 #6  - Briefly, what is cognitive restructuring?  
Cognitive restructuring is referred to as strategies for recognizing maladaptive thinking and replacing it with adaptive thinking. It deals mainly with the clients verbal behaviour and imagery.
Chapter 27, Question 10 – Describe three major components of Beck’s cognitive therapy.
10. First, clients identify the dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive assumptions that might be causing debilitating emotions. This is usually accomplished a series of visualizations exercise and easily answered questions.
Second, once a thought of dysfunctional assumption has been identified, several methods can be used to counteract it. This involves methods of reality checking of hypothesis testing. After the client has identified the dysfunctional belief or thought and has learned to distinguish it as a hypothesis rather than as a reality, He or she then tests it empirically through homework assignments.
Third, Beck uses homework assignments that contain liberal doses of behaviour modification procedures to develop various desirable daily activities.
CHAPTER 27 13. Briefly list five steps of self-instructional training that Meichenbaum and others used with children.
      1. Adult demonstrates self-instructing.       2. Child performs while adult verbalizes.       3. The child performs the task and verbalizes out loud.       4. Overt self-instructions fade.       5. Task Performance is performed with covert self-instructions.
CHAPTER 27  24. What is one explanation of why both self-instruction and problem-solving training might be effective?
            These approaches teach rule-governed behaviour that leads to effective consequences. For example, Teaching a student who is nervous about giving a speech in class (a) to recognize the fact that she is nervous, (b) to emit some coping self-statements, and (c) to self-instruct the steps for taking appropriate action is essentially giving the student a set of rules to follow. If the rules govern the behaviour successfully, then the use of those rules will have been strengthened. 
Chapter 28 1. What are empirically supported therapies (ESTs)? (Answer page 356)
ESTs are therapies that have proved to be effective in scientifically conducted trials.  They are behavioural or cognitive behavioural treatments, primarily because the behavioural approach emphasizes basing treatments on well-established principles, measuring the outcomes of treatments in objectively defined behaviours, and altering treatments that are not producing satisfactory results.
Chapter 28 2.  Why do empirically supported therapies (EST’s) often turn out to be behavioral or cognitive-behavioral therapies?
EST’s often turn out to be behavioral or cognitive-behavioral therapies because the behavioral approach emphasizes basing treatments on well-establishing principles, measuring the outcomes of treatment in objectively defined behaviors, and altering treatments that are not producing satisfactory results.
Chapter 28 Question 3 – What is a specific phobia?
3.  “An intense, irrational, incapacitating fear of a stimulus class is called a specific phobia.”
Chapter 28 5. What is a fear hierarchy?  
A fear hierarchy is a list of fear eliciting stimuli arranged in order from the least to the most fear eliciting. It is used in systematic desensitization which is a procedure for overcoming phobias by successively imagining things in a fear hierarchy.
Chapter 28, Question 6: Define systematic desensitization.
Systematic desensitization is a procedure for overcoming a phobia by having a client in a relaxed state successively imagine the items in a fear hierarchy (a list of fear- eliciting stimuli arranged in order from the least to the most fear- eliciting).
Chapter 28 – Question #7 – Using an example briefly describe three phases of systematic desensitization to a specific phobia.
Three phases of systematic desensitization of a specific phobia.  For example, the client may have social phobia.

1 – a fear hierarchy is constructed with around ten to twenty five stimuli related to the feared stimulus.  The client would construct a hierarchy of situations that would cause their social phobia such as public settings, being around other people, or driving a car in the middle lane.
2- deep-muscle relaxation is learned by learning how to tense and relax muscles. 
3 – Imagination of the fear eliciting scene while relaxing in between as they work toward the top of hierarchy of feared stimuli.  Starting with just going outside in public might be one of the fear-eliciting situations that are lower down on the hierarchy. 
Chapter 28 9. Q) Briefly describe an example of how in vivo flooding might be used to treat a specific phobia.
A) The following is an example of how in vivo flooding might be used to treat a specific phobia. Let’s say an individual has an intense fear of flying and cannot even think about flying without becoming anxious. Treatment using in vivo flooding would involve having the individual face their fear first hand by having them be a passenger on an airplane. The idea is that when the plane lands and nothing bad has occurred then the phobia will be extinguished (a few trials may be necessary for extinguishing to occur.)
Unit 28 10) Briefly describe an example of how participant modeling might be used to treat a specific phobia.
Participant modeling is a method for decreasing fear in which a client imitates another individual approaching  a feared object. If a client has a fear of dogs, the client observes a Dalmatian in fenced in yard from about 15 meters away. After several trials with encouragement and praise helping along the way, the process is repeated from 5 meters, then 2 meters, then beside the fence, with the fence gate open, within the fenced in yard, and finally with the client petting the Dalmatian.
Chapter 28 - #23 Briefly describe four types of eating disorders. With which has behaviour therapy been most effective?
1.       Anorexia nervosa – having a negative look on body image which leads to reduced eating habits 2.      Bulimia nervosa – having a negative look on body image but engaging in different eating behaviours (i.e., binge and purge) 3.      Binge-eating disorder - excessive eating habits 4.      Obesity – client has problem with eating and portion control; become severely overweight and may have health risks Behavioural therapy helped binge-eating and obesity the most by developing schedules for them to eat. Bulimia patients were resistant to treatment but they have been successful with some behavioural treatment. Anorexia is too hard to treat with behavioural therapy because the client’s self-image conflicts with their treatment.
28 – 24. List and briefly describe four behavioural strategies for treating obesity. Pg. 366
a)self-monitoring, including daily records of foods eaten and their caloric contents and body weight, b) stimulus control, such as restricting eating at home to a specific location c) the changing of the rate of eating by having clients put down utensils between bites or take short breaks between courses d)behavioural contracting, such as having clients sign a contract in which they agree to lose a certain amount of weight in a specified period of time in return for some desired reinforcer and e) relapse prevention strategies.
Chapter 29  Question 2 Q: What are two other names for Pavlovian conditioning?
A: Two other names for Pavlovian conditioning are classical or respondent conditioning.
Chapter 29, Question 6
6. What role did Hans Eysenck play in the development of behavior therapy in the 1950s?

He was a British psychologist whom was influential in criticizing traditional Freudian psychoanalytic treatment and in advocating learning-theory or conditioning procedures as alternatives (p. 372, p 4)    
Chapter 29 7) What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning is “the process of strengthening a behaviour by reinforcing it or weakening it by punishing it” (p.401).
Chapter 29 Question 12 The publications of the early 1960s within the operant orientation seem to have been characterized by two features. What were they?
(a) Much of it was done with very resistant populations, such as persons with intellectual disabilities, children with autism, and severely regressed psychiatric patients who had not received a great deal of successful input from traditional psychology, and (b) many of the applications took place in institutional or highly controlled settings.
Chapter 29, Question 15 – What is another name for operant orientation?
Ans 15.The operant orientation is also referred as applied behaviour analysis.  
Chapter 29 question 18 Briefly, how did cognitive therapist Ellis and Beck explain emotional problems, and how di they prose to treat them?
They believed that faulty cognitive processes (faulty thinking_ causes emotional and behavioural problems.  They developed approaches to therapy that focused on helping clients recognize and change faulty thinking.  Cognitive behaviour modification or Cognitive Behaviour therapy CBT is to be distinguished from social learning theory.  The social learning theory with its emphasis on the regulation of behaviour Pavlovian condition, operant condition and cognitive processes provides a way of explain behaviour.  CBT has focused mainly on explaining maladaptive behaviour sin terms of dysfunctional thinking and includes a method called cognitive restructuring as the primary treatment complete for moodily dysfunctional thinking.   
Chapter 29 question 22 In a sentence for each, distinguish between the terms behaviour therapy, applied behaviour analysis and behaviour modification as they tend to be used today?
Behaviour therapy today is referred to as the treatment that is used to modify or change a particular behaviour in an experimental or a clinical setting. Applied behaviour analysis is simply the a behaviour modification technique that the application of operant conditioning principles, and in which there often is an attempts to analyze or clearly demonstrate controlling variables of a behaviour of concern. Finally Behaviour modifications today tend to have somewhat a broader meaning that includes behaviour therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy and applied behaviour analysis.
CHAPTER 30 6. State two propositions on which behaviour modification is based.
Behaviour modification is based on the assumptions that: (a) behaviour can be controlled and (b) it is desirable to do so to achieve certain objectives.
Chapter 30, Question 7 – Why is extreme wariness a healthy reaction to any new development in science and technology. Discuss an example of this.
7. Extreme wariness in reaction to any new development in science and technology is warranted with any invention one needs to be cautious the change it executes as well as the potential for misuse or misapplication the development. For example Thalidomide was used to treat morning sickness in expectant mothers, however one of the ramifications of this drug was a high incidence of birth defects. Through ignorance and lack of proper scientific trials the drug was given to many women. Another example is the use of behaviour modification to hook young kids into gangs. Each time a youth with no money is rewarded with 20 dollars for an evening of being the go between the crack buyer and the gang dealer constitutes the misuse by humans of a simple behavioural reward program.
Chapter 30 8. From a behavioral point of view, what does the term ethics mean? (Answer page 387)  
From a behavioural point of view the term ethics refers to certain standards of behaviour that a culture developed to promote the survival of that culture.   Ethical guidelines are important sources of behavioural control when immediate reinforcers influence an individual to behave in a way that leads to aversive stimuli for others.  Sometimes these guidelines can be turned into rules.  Example:  “You should not steal”.   When members of a culture learn to follow ethical guidelines, the guidelines exert rule-governed control over behaviour.  This is one way that people learn to emit behaviour that is ethical and to refrain from behaviour that is unethical.  
Chapter 30 Question 14 Discuss countercontrol. Why is it important?
Countercontrol is the reciprocal of control, it is the influence the controlee has on the controller by virtue of access to suitable reinforcers. It is used to ensure that contingencies of reinforcement happen.*****
Chapter 30 18. In a sentence, what should be the characteristics of the intervention methods used by behaviour modifiers?
 “behaviour modifiers should use the most effective, empirically validated intervention methods with the least discomfort, and fewest negative side effects.”
Chapter 30, Question 19: Discuss three possible meanings of intrusive and restrictive interventions.
Three possible meanings of intrusive and restrictive interventions are: 1. Interventions based on positive reinforcement are generally considered to be less intrusive and restrictive than interventions based on aversive control. That does not mean that aversive procedure should never be used. It might not be in the client’s best interest for behaviour modifiers to apply a slow-acting procedure if available research indicates that more aversive procedures would be more effective. 2. Intrusive and restrictive sometimes refer to the extent to which clients are given choices and allowed freedom of movement in a therapeutic environment. 3. Intrusive and restrictive sometimes refer to the extent to which consequences are deliberately managed as opposed to naturally occurring.
Chapter 30 – Question #20 – Describe a mechanism to facilitate informed consent.
A mechanism to facilitate informed consent is the signing of a treatment contract that clearly outlines the objectives and methods of treatment, the framework for the service to be provided and contingencies for the remuneration that might be forthcoming to the therapist.