Arh 170 Fall 2009: Exam 1 Terms

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Terms To Know For Exam One

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Corbel Vault
a vault made by projecting courses of stone
the topmost zone of a wall with windows in a bascilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct  light into the central interior space.
an arcitectural element used for support and/or decoration. Consists of rounded or polygonal vertical shaft placed on a base and topped by a decorative capital.  In classical architecture, built in accordance with the rules of one of the architectual orders. Columns can be free standing or attached to a background wall.
an early form of writing with wedge-shaped marks impressed into wet clay with a stylus, primarily used by ancient mesopotamians.
Cyclopean Walls
a method of building using huge blocks of rough hewn stone. Any large-scale, monumental building project that impresses by sheer size. Named after the Cyclopes in greek myths which are huge giants with one eye.
cylinder seal
size of a spool of thread. made out of stone with a hole through it. used for signing documents -- rolling it onto wet clay.
engaged column
a column attached to a wall
a painting technique in which waterbased pigmentsare applied to the surface of wet plaster. The color is then absorbed by the plaster, becoming a permanant part of the wall.
a writing system using picture symbols; used in ancient Egypt
hypostyle hall
a large interior room characterized by many closely spaced columns that support its roof.
Kamares ware
pottery made by Mihoans on Crete
egyptian spirit.. when it leaves the body the person dies. 
lapis lazuli
A precious stone of a fine blue color. It has been used in jewelry and for a variety of decorative purposes.
a flat-topped one-story structure with slanted walls over an ancient Egyptian undergrounfd tomb.
a large stone used in prehistoric building.  Megalithic architecture employs such stones.
an Old World chronological period beginning around 10,000 years ago, situated between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic, and associated with the rise to dominance of microliths.
post and lintel
am architectural system of construction with two or more vertical element (posts) supporting a horizontal element (lintel).
a massive gateway formed by a pair of tapering walls of oblong shape.  erected by ancient Egyptians to mark the entrance to a temple complex.
a three-dimensional image or design whose flat background surface is carved away to a certain depth, setting off the figure.  
relieving triangle
Approximate triangle above a lintel where masonry courses in a wall are corbelled over each other so avoiding any loading on the lintel (e.g. in Mycenaean work).
a vessel in the shape of a figure or an animal, used for drinking or pounding liquids on special occasions.
a stone coffin.  Often rectangular and decorated with relief sculpture. 
a stone slab placed vertically and decorated with inscriptions or reliefs.  Used as a grave marker or memorial.
a small, round building.  Sometimes built underground, as in mycenaean tomb.
in Mesopotamia,  a tall stepped tower of earthen material, often supporting a shrine.