APUSH Unit 11 Terms

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APUSH Unit 11 Terms


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middle-class woman who was deeply dedicated to uplifting the urban masses. She was one of the first generation of college-educated women. She established the Hull House in Chicago 1889, which was a settlement house (a place where immigrants came for counseling, literacy training, child care, and cultural activities.
Jane Addams
armed with the insights of socialism and endowed with the voice of an actress, she was a lifelong battler for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers. She led the case of when the Hull House lobbied for an Illinois sweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited child labor. “a guerilla warrior in the urban jungle.”
Florence Kelley
she founded the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science) in 1879, after she had suffered much ill health. The main belief of Christian Science was healing through prayer, not through medical treatment.
Mary Baker Eddy
he published a volume called the On Origin of the Species. His theory of evolution argued that higher forms of life had evolved from lower forms via random mutation and survival-of-the-fittest. His review thus rejected divine creation. Conservatives stood firmly in their beliefs of God and religion, why Modernists flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety.
Charles Darwin
he developed a plan for bettering the lots of blacks. His commitment to training young blacks in agriculture and the trades guided the curriculum at Tuskegee Institute, which was a normal school for black teachers and taught hands-on industrial trades. He avoided the issue of social equality, and instead focused on one thing at a time: developing economic and educational recourses of the black community
Booker T. Washington
the first African American to earn a PhD at Harvard. He demanded complete equality for blacks, social as well as economic, and helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He called for the “talented tenth” of the black community to be given full access and equality. His criticism was that Washington’s method put blacks in a little box of manual labor only.
W. E. B. Du Bois
he made a large impact in psychology through his numerous writings. He was one of America’s most brilliant intellectuals and served 35 years on the Harvard faculty. His Principles of Psychology helped to establish the modern discipline of behavioral psychology. The concept of pragmatism held that truth was to be tested, above all, by the practical consequences of an idea, by action rather than theories.
William James
he was a journalist-author who was an original thinker who left an enduring mark. Poor in formal schooling, he was rich in idealism and human kindness. After seeing poverty at its worst in India, he wrote the book Progress and Poverty, which attempted to solve the association of progress with poverty. His theory was that “progress” pushed land values up and created poverty amongst many. His solution to the distribution of wealth was to propose a 100% tax on profits—a very controversial proposal.
Henry George
he wrote rags-to-riches stories, usually about a good boy that made good. They all championed the virtues of honesty and hard work that lead to prosperity and honor. His best know book was Ragged Dick. He was a Puritan-driven New Englander who wrote more than 100 volumes of juvenile fiction including New Yorker newsboys in 1866. He said that virtue, honesty, and industry are rewarded by success, wealth, and honor. A survival of the purest, especially nonsmokers, nondrinkers, nonswearers, and nonliars.
Horatio Alger
his original name was Samuel Langhorne Clemens. He traveled through the West and wrote Roughing It recounting the trip. It was a mix of truths, half-truths, and tall tales, and the readers loved it. He co-wrote The Gilded Age that laid bare on the questionable politics and business of the day. He also wrote the Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. He was a journalist, humorist, satirist, and opponent of social injustice. He recaptured the limits of realism and humor in the authentic American dialect.
Mark Twain
she was a feminist who published Women and Economics, a classic of feminism. She (1) shunned traditional femininity, (2) said there were no real differences between men and women, and (3) called for group of nurseries and kitchens to free up women. She called upon women to abandon their dependent status and contribute to the larger life of the community through productive involvement in the economy. She devoted herself to a vigorous regimen of physical exercise and philosophical meditation.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
she took command of the suffrage battle. Under her, the suffragists de-emphasized the argument that women deserved the matter of right, because they were in all respects the equals of men. Instead, she stressed the desirability of giving women the vote if they were to continue to discharge their traditional duties as homemakers and mothers in the increasingly public world of the city.
Carrie Chapman Catt
he was an urban Catholic leader devoted to American unity, who was immensely popular with Roman Catholics and Protestants alike. He employed his liberal sympathies to assist the American labor movement.
Cardinal James Gibbons
a former Chicago shoe salesmen. He was a country boy who made good in the big city. Proclaiming a gospel of kindness and forgiveness, he was a modern urban circuit rider who took his message to countless American cities in the 1870s and 80s. His goal and achievement was to connect biblical teachings and Christianity to modern city life. The Moody Bible Institute founded in Chicago was founded in 1899.
Dwight L. Moody
a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas.
a place where immigrants came for counseling, literacy training, child care, and cultural activities.
 settlement house
antiforeignism. These people worried that the original Anglo-Saxon population would soon be outnumbered and outvoted. They considered eastern and southern European immigrants inferior to themselves. They blamed the immigrants for the dreadful conditions of urban government, and unionists attacked the immigrants for their willingness to work for small wages.
came from Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. The sensational theory that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of life ("the survival of the fittest"). The idea cast serious doubt on a literal interpretation of the Bible.
the most famous work of William James in 1907. The concept of pragmatism held that truth was to be tested, above all, by the practical consequences of an idea, by action rather than theories. This kind of reasoning created a nation of doers. (Basically the idea that "actions speak louder than words".)
the name given to the colorful comics written by Joseph Pulitzer, comics that featured the "Yellow Kid", a popular sensationalist comic.
yellow journalism
Eastern and Southern Europeans. They came for the same reasons as the Old Immigrants, to escape poverty and fighting in Europe and to seek new opportunities in America. The government did almost nothing to help new immigrants besides refuse admission to the criminals and the insane so they were pretty much at the mercy of "bosses" like New York's Boss Tweed. Politicians traded jobs and services for their votes.
New Immigration
an idea proposed by Protestant clergymen Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden that insisted that churches tackle social issues of the present day (apply the lessons of Christianity to the slums and factories).
social gospel
the most prominent (though not the first) American settlement house founded by Jane Addams.
Hull House
They were an Antiforeign organization like the "Know Nothings" before the Civil War. Created in 1887, they urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office and sponsored the publication of dirty text about runaway nuns (so immature!!!).
American Protective Association
soldiers that invaded America from England in 1879 without swords and established a beachhead on the street corners. The did a lot of practical good for "down and outers" and they gave free soup. Yay!
. Salvation Army
the founding of adult school. Public lectures held in tents featuring well known speakers like Mark Twain. It also included home study.
. Chautauqua movement
law passed in 1862 after the South seceded to provide a generous grant of public lands to the states fro support of education.
Morrill Act
self appointed defender of sexual purity (Anthony Comstock) boasted that he had confiscated no fewer than 202,679 obscene pictures and photos and 4,185 boxes and pills and powders used by abortionists. Comstock claimed that he had driven at least fifteen people to suicide.
Comstock Law
organized in 1874 to combat female alcoholism
Women's Christian Temperance Union
took refuge north of the border after the Battle of Little Bighorn. Chief Joseph hoped to rendezvous with him but instead Chief and the other Nez Percés were sent to a reservation in Kansas.
Sitting Bull
led a "scientific" expedition into the Black Hills of South Dakota (part of the Sioux reservation) and announced that he had discovered gold. He led a Seventh Cavalry that set out to suppress Indians and return them to the reservation.
George A. Custer
surrendered the band of Nez Percé Indians to U.S. authorities in 1877 after a three month trek across the Continental Divide toward Canada.
Chief Joseph
In 1851 Mexican troops killed his mother, wife, and three of his children initiating his lifelong hatred of Mexicans, though later in life he, ironically, he ran away from U.S. reservations to freedom in Mexico. He was persuaded to surrender to American authorities in 1886. He spent the rest of his life on reservations in Florida, Alabama, and Oklahoma.

a Massachusetts writer of children's books who published A Century of Dishonor in 1881, a story record of government ruthlessness in dealing with the Indians.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A geologist and explorer of the Colorado River’s Grand Canyon. He was the director of the US Geological Survey. He warned people that without massive irrigation, agriculture beyond the 100th meridian was impossible.
John Wesley Powell
The leading spirit of The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. He was a Minnesota farmer working as a clerk in Washington.  Kelley’s first objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities.
Oliver H. Kelley
He wrote a popular pamphlet titled Coin’s Financial School. It was illustrated by clever woodcut, one which depicted the gold ogre beheading the beautiful silver maiden. The booklet showed how he overwhelmed bankers and professors of economics with his brilliant arguments on behalf of free silver.
William Hope Harvey:
The queen of the Populist “calamity howlers.” She was known as the “Kansas Pythoness.” She reportedly demanded that Kansas should raise “less corn and more hell.”
Mary Elizabeth Lease
He wrote an essay titled “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” in 1893.
Frederick Jackson Turner
He was a general during the Civil War. He was chosen as the presidential candidate of the Populist Party. He was a Granger with an apt for public speaking. He only ended up getting three percent of the popular votes which is really a large number for a third party candidate.
James B. Weaver
The most famous marcher. He set out for Washington in 1894 with a few score of supporters and a swarm of newspaper reporters. His platform included a demand that the government relieve unemployment by an inflationary public works program.
Jacob S. Coxey
A charismatic labor leader. He helped organize the American Railway Union of about 150,000 members. He was sentenced to six months imprisonment for contempt of court because he had defied a federal court injunction to cease striking.
Eugene V. Debs
Leading candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1896. He was a former congressman of Ohio. His signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. As the Republican candidate in the 1896 presidential election, he upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups.
William McKinley
He fought to get William McKinley the Republican nomination for president. He used the money he made in the iron business to support William McKinley's presidential campaign. He became a personification of big business in politics.
Marcus Alonzo Hanna
lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians were led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer's forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indian were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.
Sioux Wars
A band if Indians in northeastern Oregon. They were goaded into to flight, when US authorities tried to herd them onto a reservation. They surrendered and were sent to a reservation in Kansas, where 40 percent of them perished from disease.
Nez Percé
Native American-Indian tribe; 1870's; group from Arizona and New Mexico led by Geronimo were difficult to control; chased into Mexico by Federal troops; they became successful farmers raising stock in Oklahoma.
A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good.
Ghost Dance
A group of white Christian reformist tried to bring Christian beliefs on to the Indians. Fearing the Ghost Dance American troops were called to go with the reformist. While camped outside of an Indian reservation a gun was fired and the troops stormed the reservation killing Indian men women and children.
Battle of Wounded Knee
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
. Dawes Severalty Act
In 1876, Colonel George A. Custer and 260 of his men were killed by Sioux Indians led by Sitting Bull at this battle in southern Montana. "Custer's Last Stand" became enshrined in American mythology as a symbol of the brutality of the Indian wars, although there is substantial evidence that Custer acted recklessly in attacking the large Indian encampment.
. Little Big Horn
The Native American term for African-American soldiers in the West
Buffalo Soldiers
This discovery of gold and silver caused an explosion in the population of Nevada. The state was then railroaded into the union to vote for Lincoln.

Comstock Lode
the practice of driving cattle over unpopulated western plains to a railroad to be shipped to a slaughterhouse. The cowboys would move herds of cattle across the grassy government land hoping to avoid various perils and turn a profit.
Long Drive
this law allowed settlers to acquire land live on it for five years, improving it (farming, building a house, etc.), and pay a small fee. While it was well intention most of the good land was bought up by large companies through their employees and the remaining land was difficult to farm. Eventually many farmers discovered the vitality of prairie farmers and engineers irrigated deserts.
Homestead Act
this refers to the state of Oklahoma. When the government decided to allow settlement of the fertile land many overenthusiastic settlers entered illegally before the announced date of settlement. These “sooners” had to be regularly evicted by federal troops. The settlement was so quick that Oklahoma became a state in 1907, eight years after being open foe business.
Sooner State
The idea that when hard times came the unemployed moved west and became prosperous farmers. Due to the large start up capital needed to begin a farm (for machinery and the like), as well as the lack of city dweller knowledge of farming, it was false. The west did however encourage immigrants to farm keeping the workforce from increasing more.
safety-valve theory
– large farms that grew only one crop, usually wheat. Through these farming became more like a factory.
Bonanza farms
an organization of farmers that began in 1867. Its objectives centered around improving life for the isolated farmers. It also had social gatherings and gained some political influence.
National Grange
these laws attempted to recognize the principle of public control over private business for the general welfare. They were badly written and were all turned over in courts of various levels.

Granger laws
this organization was founded in the late 1870sto advocate farmers. They were somewhat weak as thy ignored the tenant farmers, share croppers, farm workers, and black farmers. The group eventually grew into the Populist party.
Farmers' Alliance
mostly advocated for the farmers (later on incorporated urban workers with some success) and focused especially on the introduction of silver coinage
Populist (People's) Party
this famous march was lead by Jacob S. Coxly who intended to invade Washington and give his demands. The invasion was a total failure as he and his colleagues were arrested for walking on the grass upon arriving at the capital.
Coxey's Army
this railroad worker strike stopped all railroad traffic from Chicago, where it was located, to the Pacific coast. Eventually troops were called in and put down the strike to the outrage of many laborers.

Pullman Strike
William Jennings Bryan made this speech. In it he advocated the use of silver. He was so persuasive and confident that he was nominated by the democrats.

Cross of Gold speech
this was the proposed ratio of silver to gold that the Populist-Democrats advocated. It became the slogan for Bryan in the 1896 elections.
"16 to 1"
the political system that began after the 1896 elections. It was a long reign of Republican dominance accompanied by lower voter turn out, the weakening of party organizations, and the fading away of issues like the money question and civil service reform.
fourth party system"
this was rammed through the House in 1897 and increases tariffs to counter the tariff reduction by the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act of 1894.

. Dingley Tariff bill
this law provided that paper money could be freely exchanged with gold.
Gold Standard Act