APUSH Review Terms Part 4

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APUSH Review Terms Part 4

Cold War

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issues raised by WWII
concerened the survival of the combatants with mass destruction in the nations involved in WWII with everywhere except the US seeing fighting within their borders. second issue involved shape of the new world and what new political alliances would be formed. 
Cold war
struggle between communism and capitalism. no actual combat. the major powers, the US and the soviet union, didnt enter into combat in the cold war, but the US did fight hot wars in Korea and Vietnam during this time. 
begining of the cold war: poland
the soviet union refused to acknowladge the conservative government of Poland in exile in england. A communist government took over poland
Truman Doctrine
stated after the communist insurgents in 1947 threatened to take over both greece and turkey, but england could no longer prop up these nations. Truman asked for $400 million to aid the countries, asserting that it much be the policy of the United STates to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside rpessures. became the cornerstone of containment.
articulated by George KEnnan, came from the Long Telegram, which Kennan sent to washington from his duty station ing ermany. said the US would not instigate war with the Soviet union, but it would come to the defense of countries in danger of soviet takeover. policy aimed to prevent the spread of communism and encourage the soviets to abandon their aggressive tactics. 
Marshall PLan
US plan to send more than $12 billion to Europe to help rebuild its cities and economy. in return for the money, countries were expected to become American allies. was offered to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, no countries in the Soviet Sphere participated in the program, as stalin viewed it as futher evidence of US imperialism.
North Atlantic Treaty ORganisation (NATO)
created during Trumans presidency. created between the US and Western europe. was a nutual defense alliance in 1949. Truman did not have an easy time convincing congress that it was necessary. 
Berlin Crisis 1948
helped convince congress that NATO was necessary. when germany was divided in 1945 into 4 secors between England, US, France, and the Soviet Union. after learning that the 3 western blocs were going to merge their sectors into one country, the soviets responded by imposing a blockade on berlin.
Berlin airlift/blockade
Truman refused to surrender Berlin and ordered airlifts to keep that portion under Western control supplied with food and fuel. blockade lasted for almost a year. soviets gave it up
National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency
formed after the soviet detonatd their first atomic bomb right after nato was formed in 1949. fear of soviet invasion or subterfuge led to the creation of the NSC (foreign affairs advisers who work for the president) and the CIA.
Reconstruction of Japan
issue under truman. after WWII US occupoed japan and its colonial posessions were divided up. the US took control of the pacific Islands and the southern half of Korea, whole the USSR took control of north korea. under general MacArthur, Japan wrote a democratic constitution, demilitarized, and started a remarkable economic revival.
Chinese Revolution
issue under Truman. the US sided with Chiang Kai-shek's nationalis government against Mao Zedongs communist insurgents, during Chinas 20 year civil war. dispite massive american aid,t he compmunists overthrew the nationalists whose government was exiled to Taiwan. The US refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of Maos regime for decades, creating another international hot spot.
loyalty check
Truman ordered investigations of 3 million federal employees in search of security risks in 1947. caused by anti communist paranoia. those found to have a potential achilles heel were dismissed without a hearing.
Alger Hiss
1949 former state department official alger hiss was found guilty of consorting with a communist spy (Nixon was the congressman mostly responsible for Hiss's downfall).
Joseph McCarthy
in 1950 mcCarthy claimed to have a list of more than 200 known communists working for the state department. changed the number several times. went on a campaign of innuendo that ruined the lives of thousands of innocent people. held years of hearings with regard to subvesrion. 
industries created lists of those tainted by communists and subversion charges, which prevented the accused from working, just as blacklists had been used against union organizers
Army McCarthy Hearings
Mccarthy charged the army of harboring communists. the army fought back hard. The hearings made Macarthy look foolish and the public turned their backs on him, ending McCarthyism
new conservatism
already had begun to take over the US under truman. when unemployment began to rise as well as inflation, Truman offered some new deal style solutions to americas economic woes but new conservatism had already taken over and many of his proposals were rejected. 
new conservatism brought around antiunionism, particularly when workers in essential industries went on strike, like the United Mine Workesr cut off the energy supply to other industries. 
seizure of mines
Truman followed the national mood, ordering a government seizure of mines when a settlement could not be reached. 
Eightieth congress
Truman alienated labor, after threatening to draft those involved in a railroad strike. they were one of the core constituencies of the new democratic coalition. labor and consumers, angry at inflation, formed an alliance that helped the republicans take control of teh eightieth congress in 1946
Presidents committee on Civil rights
truman alienated the south by taking a progressive approach to civil rights. he convened the presidents committee on civil rights, which in 1948 issues a report calling for an end to segregation and poll taxes, and for more aggresive enforcement of antilynching laws. he also issued an executive order forbidding racial discrimination in the hiring of federal employees and another one fo desegregating the armed forces. 
Taft Hartly Act
passed over trumans veto , prohibited union only work environments called closed shops, restricted labors right to strike, prohibited the use of union funds for political purposes, and gave the government broad power to intervene in strikes.