APUSH Review Terms Part 3

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APUSH Review Terms Part 3

Progressives And WWI

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developed out of the populist movement, came to dominate the first 2 decades of the twentieth century american politics. progressives were urban, middle class reformers who wanted to increase the role of government in reform while maintaining a capitalist economy. more successful than the populists because not poor farmers. they were middle class and could devote more time tot heir causes.
hournalists who wrote exposes of corporate gree dand misconduct. revealed widespread corruption in urban management, oil companies, and the meatpacking industry.
Lincoln Steffen
exposed corruptiion in urban management in the Shame of the Cities
Ida Tarbell
exposed curruption of the oil industries in her history or standard oil
Uptown Sinclair
exposed corruption in the meat packing inudstry with /the Jungle
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
headed by WEB Du Bois, this group worked to fight against black discrimination. Du Bois abandoned the quest for racial justice and moved to AFrica
The feminist movement
lead by margaret sanger, faced whide opposition for promiting the use of contraceptives (illegal in most places.)
19th amendment
the feminist movements greatest succes during the 20th century. won women the right to vote. 
Robert LaFollette
led the way for many progressive state leaders. LaFollette in wisconson implemented plans for direct promary elections, progressive taxation,a nd rail regulation. 
ballot initiative
many states extended greater power to voters by adopting the ballot initiative, through which the voters coupd propose new laws
allowed the public to vote on new laws
recall electgion
gave voters the power to remove officials from office before their terms expired. 
Theodore Roosevelt
most prominent PRogressive leader. people expected him to be a conservative, but his politics surprised people.first to use the sherman anti trust act effectively against monopoplies. called the trust breaker. tightened food and drug regulations, created national partks, and broadened the governments power to protect land from overdevelopment. 
President Taft
President after Teddy Roosevelt, spearheading the drive for 2 constitutional amendments, one that instituted a national income tax (16th amendment) and one that allowed fo rdirect elections of senators (17th amendment). pursued monopolies more agressively than roosevelt.
President Wilson
pres after taft, ran against roosevelt who ran for reelection on the bull moose ticket. roosevelts policies reffered to as new nationalism, wilson refered to his ideas as new freeedom. Wilson hated monopolies no matter what while roosevelt thought there were good trusts an bad trists. Wilson created the Federal Trade Commission, lobbied for and enforced the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, and helped create the federal reserve system which gave the govt greater control over the nations finances.
Platt Amendment
T Roosevelts administration strongarmed cuba into accepting the Platt amendment, which committed Cuba to American semi control. Cuba could not make a treaty without US approval, the US had the right to intervene in cubas domestic affiars. 
Panama Canal
under T Roosevelt, Congress approved a plan for a canal through Panama to shorten the sea trip from the east coast to california. he was very interventionist throughout central america. Colombia asked for more than the govt was willing to spend so the US encouraged Panamaian revels to revolt, and supported the revolution. the new Panamanian govt gave the US a much better deal.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctine
known as the big stick policy, US trooops intervened repeatedly in Latin America claiming that the region was domestically instable and constituted a threat to American national security.
When WWI broke out, Wilson had jsut been elected president as a democrat. war broke out in 1914 and wilson immidiately declared neutrality, calling for america to treat all the belligerents fairly and ithout favoritism. Wilson hoped that the US would help settle the conflict and emerge as the worlds arbiter. problems ith neutrality included americas close relationship with england and a distant relationship with germany and austria hungary. a number of wilsions advisors openly favored the allies.
British blockade on germany
britain imposed a blockade on germany very effectivly because of its superior naby. we were still trading with germany and the blockade hurt us economically. protests were futile and the pritish govt impounded and confiscated american shipments. they then paid for the cargo, reducing the pressure that american merchants would have put on the US govt to take action against the blockade.
submarines and U boats
germany attempted to counter the blockade with submarines or U boats. according to contemporaneous international law, an attacker had to warn civilian ships before attacking. Submarines could not do this because it would eliminate their advantage. when germans attacked civilian ships, it was usually because those ships were carying military supplies. the germans announced they would attack any such ship hich pissed wilson off. ilson announced the germans needed to adhere to international law. 
The Lusitania
German submarines sank the passenger ship the Lusitania in 1915 killing 1,200 passengers, the action provoked the condemnation of both the government and much of trhe public. Germans ceased submarine warfare for a while after the bad publicity it generated because germany did not want the US entering the war.
Sinking of the Arabic and preparedness
when germany continued submarine warfare, they sank another passsenger liner, the arabic. in responce, wilson, while still maintaining neutrality, asked congress to put the military into a state of preparedness for war just in case. popular support for entry was beginint to grow. 
Zimmerman telegram
british intercepted telegram from german foreign minister zimmerman in 1917. outlined a german plan to keep the US out of the european war. stated that if mexico were to declare war on the US, germany would provide mexico help in regaining the lands lost in the mexican war. also suggested that germany would help japan if they too wanted to go to war against america. convinced many americans that germany was trying to take over the war. shifted the balance, war declared.
War Industry Board
created to coordinate all facets of industrial and agricultural production, sought to guarantee that the US and the rest of the allies would be well supploed. had mixed success, because it was a large bureaucracies and slow and inefficient
Espionage act
1917 prohibited anyone from using the US mail system to interfere with the war effort and draft. 
Sedition Act 1918
illegal to try and prevent the sale of war bonds or to speak disparagingly of the govt, the flag, the military, or the constitution. violated the first amendment but was worded vaguely giving the courts great leaveway.
Schenck v. United States
1919 the supreme corut upheld the espionage act. Schenck was aprominent socialist and ccritic of american ca[italism which he belived was why the US went to war. he was arrested for printing and mailing leaflets urging the men to resists the draft. he argued that it violated the 13th amendment with involuntary servitude. 
Federal Bureau of investigation
created to prevent radicals from taking over. Headed by J. edgar Hoover. radical labor unions were branded enemies of the state, and their leaders were incarcerated such as Eugene Debs.
Palmer Raids
early 1920. the govt abandonded all pretext of respecting civil liberties as its agents raided union halls, pool halls, social clubs, and residences to arrest 4,000 suspected radicals. 600 deported, some for no more than communist sympathies.
Committee on Public Information (CPI)
wartime propaganda arm of the government. messages became more sensational as the war went on. created nasty images of the germans and the Huns. americans rejected anything german. saurcraut changed to liberty cabbage. 
Women opportunities from WWI
not really increased employment for omen, but their means of employment changed. many women quit domestic work and started working in factories. workplace advances ended the war as veterans returned home.
Blacks during WWI
many blacks in the south moved to the big cities in the north realizing that wartime manufacturing was creating jobs. many blacks joined the army as WEB Du Bois encouraged them to enlist, hoping the military service would provide an inroad to social equality. sadly, stills egregated and served with menial labor. 
14 points
american participation in WWI tipped the balance in the allies favor, and 2 years after american entry, the germans were ready to negotaite a peace treaty. wilson wanted the treaty to be guided by his 14 points, his plan for world peace. the points called for free trade through lower fariffs and freedom of the seas, a reduction of arms supplies on all sides, the promition of self determination (the end of colonialism.) called for the creation of the Leageu of nations. much like todays United nations. served as a basis for initial negotiations.
Treaty of Versailles
european allies anted a peace settlement that punished germany. under Versaille, germany was forced to cede german and colonial territories to the allies, to disarm, to pay huge reparations, and to admit that the war was germanys fault. by leaving germany humiliated and in economic ruin, the treaty of versaills set the stage for WWII. much of wilsons plan was disregarded but the league of nations was created under the treaty of versailles. 
debate over the League of nations in the US
main debate over article X. many people belived it curtailed americas ability to act independently in foreign affairs, specifically congresses power to declare war. senate split into 3 groups, the democrats who sided with wilson and were willing to accept american entrance into the league of nations, a group of republicans who hated the League known as the Irreconciables, and the reservationists, a group of republicans led by Henry Cabot Lodge. 
Lodge Reservations
wilson was unwilling to compromise, especially since henry cabot lodge was wilsons political nemesis and intellectual rival. he would not accept the lodge resevations, allowing the democrats and irreconcilables to join forces and defeated the treaty. The US was not a signatoey of the treaty of versailles, and never joined the league of nations. 
The Jazz age and the Great Depression - pro buisness (1920-1933)
after WWI, the progressive reform ended. americans became more comfortable with the idea of large successful buisnesses. hte govt gew to be more pro buisness. govt regulatory agenices such as the FTC more often assisted buisness thna regulated it. Labor unions fell more out of public favor
Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover
presidents during the jazz age and great depression. pursied pro buisness policies and surrounded themselves with like minded advisorts. 
Teapot Dome Scandal
Harding, an honest presidnet surrounded himself with corrupt advisors, and several of his cabinet members wound up in proson. the teapod dome scandal occured where the oil companies bribed the sec of the interior in order to drill on public lands. 
Hardins domestic policy
more liberal than wilson when it came to civil rights though more economically conservative. supported anti lynching laws and tried to help farmers by providing more moneyfor farming laws. died in office.
drop in labor union participation
caused by pro buisness atmosphere. efforts of buisnessess to woo orkers ith pension plans, opportunitiwe for profit sharing, and company parties. buisnesses hoped that if they offered some benifits, they could dissuade workers from organizing and demanding even more. called welfare capitalism.
henry ford lowerd the cost of automobiles with assembly line and production. mby the end of the decad,e most middle class familes could afford a car. allowed those who worked in the cities to move farther away from the centers, giving birth to the suburbs. 
changed the nations culture during the jazz age. created the advertising indursry to hype all the new products. they were quite effective at convincing people to buy things they didnt need. 
required families to have alot of money and single earner households often couldnt affort to heep up with the joneses. caused many womento enter the working world. women continued to work in predominatly female dominated professions called pink collar jobs. 
the flapper
changed the traditional role of women. new ideas were brought by WWI, the big city, the right to vote, ans Sigmund freud. women discarded the corset, layers of e=petticodes. wore short dresses, smoked and drank. 
Culture of the movies
grew rapidly in the 1920s and reflected the modernization of american society. reflecteed the nation as yound, indtependent minded and gourgous while being rich. 
the lost generation
F. Scott Fitzgerald, ernist hemingway, and eugene o Neill. many of these writers moved to wurope where they chrinucled their alienation from the modern era.
Harlem Renaissance
in the largest black neighborhood of NC+YC, theatres, cultureal clubs, and newpapers sprung up. WEB Du Bois prominance helped draw attention to the harlems cultural ovement. 
popularization of jazz
black cultural development, featured improvisation and free spiritedness, came to me seen as emblematic of the era. most popular and most gifted was the trumpeter Louis Armstrong
Ku Klux Klan
vacklash from the rapid transition into the modern age. grew to more than 5 million members and widened its targets, attacking blacks, jews, urbanites, and anyone whose behavior deviated from the Klans narrowly defined code of acceptable christain behavior. 
Sacco and Vanzetti
anti immigration groups grew against the southern and eastern eurioean immigrants. intensified wwhen two italian immigrant anarchsitsts, Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested on charges of murder. evidince was inconclusive but still excecuted. 
Emergency Quota Act of 1924
set immigration quotas based on national orgins and discriminated against the new immigrants who came from southern and eastern europe. these limits were set to reduce "foreign infliuence" on the counrty. 
John Thomas Scopes and the Scopes Monkey trial
broke a rule about not teaching evolution in schools. Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan argued the case. captivated the nation because encapsulated the devate over whether to stick with tradition or abandon it for progress's sake
banned the maufacture, sale, or transport of alcoholic beverages. had roots in the reform campaigns of the 1830s, remained on womens priorities until the 18th amendment was passed
18th amendment
outlawed frinking, passed in 1917. people came to resent the governments intrusion in what they considered a private matter. prohibition weakened by the effectiveness of organized crome in producing and sellign liquor. repealed in 1933.
October 1929
just after hoover was elected president, the stock market crashed, as one of the main reasons for hte great depression.
irresponsible speculation helped lead to the stockmarket crash as traders  weer buying on margin and only put up 10 to 20% of the cost of each stock. many of these speculators were huge banks and corporations, which were on the verge of bankrupsy and unable to pay employees or guarantee bank deposits.
shanty towns built by the homeless who had lost their life savings and were unable to keep up with the mortgage payments. 
dust bowl
farmers effected in the depression by the dust bowl with the great plains area odf the midwest. encouraged agrarian unrest as farmers fought evictions and foreclosures by attacking those who tried to enforce the,/ 
Farmers Holiday association
created during the great depression by farmers to keep prices at farm actions low. organized demonstrations and threatened a nationwide walkout by farmers in order to raise prices.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
at first hoover opposed federal relief efforts because it violated rugged individualism but as the depression worsened, he initiated a few farm assistance programs and campaigned for federal work projects/ he hoped that raising tariffs would help american buisness, by the Hawley Smoot tarrif worsened the economy. was the highest protective tariff in US history, enacted during the worst economic depression in the US>
Bonus Expeditionary Force
Congress considered early payment of benefits to WWI veterans. thousands of veterans walked in washington to lobby the bill. when it was defeated, many refused to leave, squatting in empty government offices of building shanties and staying in the summer. Hoover ordered the army to expell them which MacArthur chose to do with excessive force. 100 people died during the attack. 
Franklin D Roosevelt
won easily over hoovers reelection because he argued for a more interventionist government with relief payments to the unemployed. also hoover took the blame for macarthur with the bonus expeditionary force.
First Hundred Days
emergancy session of congress in 1933 when roosevelt took office. lasted 100 days and the govt impelented most of the programs associated with the First New Deal. the first 100 days of roosevelts presidency where he declared war on the depression.
First New Deal
included the Emergency Banking RElief bill, the fireside chats, the Banking Act of 1933, the Federal deposit Insurance Corporation, the Agricultural Adjustment act, the Farm Credit act, the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), the Public Works Administration, the Civilian Conservation Coorps. the Tennessee valley Authority, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and the securities and exchange commission (SEC)
Emergency Banking Relief Bill
put poorly managed banks under conrtol of the tresury department and granted government licenses to those that were solvent.
fireside chats
roosevelt reassured the public that the banks were once again secure. more than 60 million americans listened and redepositied their savings. made american banks healthy again.
Banking Act of 1933
created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to guarantee bank deposits, which was a big deal since people used to lose all of their money if the bank went banrupt. 
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
in responce to the overproduction of farmers and their low prices. The AAA provided payments to farmers in return for their agreement to cut production by up to one half, the money for this program came from increased taxes on meat packers, millers, and other food processors. 
Farm Credit Act
passed right after the AAA< provided loans to those farmers in danger of foreclosure.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
established government control over industry. consolidated buisnesses and coordinated their activities with the aim of eliminating overproduction and by doing so, stabilized prices. established th ePublic Works Administration
Public Works Admonistration PWA
set aside $3 billion to create jobs building roads, sewers, public housing units, and other civic necessities. 
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
provided grants to the states to manage their on PWA like projects. 
Tennessee Valley Authority TVA
one of the new deals most daring moves, the govt took over the TVA. under govt control the TVA expanded its operations greatly. which led to the economic recovery of the region.
National LAbor RElations Board
created during the first hundred days. mediated labor disputes but wasnt implemented until 1934.
Securities and Exchange Commision (SEC)
regulated the stockmarket. created during the first hundred days but not implimented until 1934.
Conservative opposition to the new deal
opposed the higher tax rates that the new deal brought, also disliked the increase in government power over business, and complained that relief programs removed incentive for the poor to lift themselves out of poverty. its deficit spending was huge to conservitives since the govt had to borrow to finance all of its plans. 
Leftist opposition to the New Deal
Complained that the AAA policy of paying farmers not to grow was immoral, given that many americans were still too poor to feed themselves. also felt thast the government policy towards buisness was too favorable, awnting more punitive measures as many on the left blamed corporate greed for the depression. 
Socialist party
despair caused by the Depression provided fodder for a more radical left, and the socialists were gaining popularity by calling for the nationalization of buisnesses.
Schechter poultry coup vs US
invalidated sections of the NIRA ont he grounds that the codes created under this agency were unconstitutional because they were basically laws and only congress had the power to create laws. the NIRA set wage and price celigins, amximum work hours, and regulations regarding labor unions.
United states v. butler
the aAA was struch down. Roosevelt responded by trying to pack the courts by increasing the size from 9 to 15. obvious to both sides od congress of his courtbacking and didnt pass.
Second New Deal
included the Works PRogress Administration (WPA), the second hundred dats, broadening the pwoers of the NIRA< Social Security Adnimistration, the New Deal Association.
Works PRogress Administration (WPA)
generated more than 8 million jobs, all paid for by the govt. along with public works prpjects,t he WPA employed writers, photographers, and other artists to create travel guides and to record local and personal histories.
Secon Hundred days
the summer of 1935 was called this because importance of the legislation passed was comparable to the fist hundred days. during this, Congess broadended the powers of the NLRB, democratized unions, and punished buisnesses with anti union policies.
Social Security Adminisration
created during the second hundred days. provided retirement benefits for many orkers, incluiding the disabled, and families whose main bread winner had died. 
New Deal Coalition
the cumulative effect of these programs led to the creation of the new deal coalition, made up of union members, urbanites, the underclass, and blacsk who had previously voted republican out of loyalty to the party of lincoln.
Judicail organization bill
first failure of FDRspresidency happened during begining of his second term. tried to appoint a new judge for every judge already above 70. would have allowed 6 new supreme court jsutives and 40 new federal judges. clearly packing the courts so was soundly defeated by a democratic congress as FDR came under criticizm for trying to seize too much power.
1937 recession
caused by FDR cutting back on new deal policies in an effort to balance the budget after he had thought they had worked. also the fedeal reserve boardtightened the credit supply in an effort to slow inflation. both actions took money out of circulation causing a slower economy.
second AAA
FDR had to take money out of his new deal policies to build up the military when it looked like europe was going to go to war again. the administration passed a second new deal that met the standards set by the Supreme courts rejection of the first AAA.
Fair Labor Standads ACt
set a minimum wage and established the 40 hour work week for a number of professions. not long after, the new deal came to an end.
The WAshington conference !921-1922
8 of the worlds great powers met, resulting in treaty set limits on stockpiling armaments and reaffirmed the open door policy toward china. caused independent internationalism instead of isolationism for the US
The Kellogg Briand Pact 1928
62 nations signed the pact which condemed war as a means of foeign policy. although it contained no enforcement clauses, the pact was idely considered a good first step toward a post war age.
Good Neigbor Policy 1934
in latin america, the US tried to back away from its interventionist policy and replace it with the good neighbor policy. misleading name as the US continued to actively promote its interests in Latin america. main change in policy was that the american govt proceeded by less obvious means. The platt amendment was repealled at this time. the US achieved its foreign policy objectives mainly through economic coercion and support of pro american leaders. 
during the republican administrations of the 1920s, the US govt kept tariffs high. 
Reciprical Trade Agreements Act
under FDR< allowed the president to reduce tariffs if he felt doing so would help achieve foreign policy goals. used as economic leverage for a foreign policy tool. 
most favored nation trade status
under the Reciprocal trade Agreements Act. countries granted this status were eligible for the lowest tariff rate set by the United states, if they played their cards right. 
disenchantment with the results of WWI led to isolationist sentiment, a stance amplified by the findings of the Nye commission. the commission report in 1936 revealed unwholesome activities by american arms manufacturers; many had lobbied intesnely for entry into WWI, other sbribed foreign officials. 
neutrality acts
congresses responce to the nye commission. the first prohibited the sales of arms to either belligerent in war, though roosevelt sidesteped this with china and japan by failing to acknolwedge that china and japan were at wae. the second neutrality act banned loans to belligerents.
cash and carry
when WWII broke out, congress responded with the 3rd neutrality act which required the allies to pay cash for their weapons, and to come to th eUS to pick up their purchases and carry them away on their own ships
Lend Lease Act
roosevelt worked ot assist the allies with the limits allowed by the neutrality ats. he instituted the nations first peace time military draft. the lend lease act was forced through congess, which permitted the US to lend ships into the war zone to protect lend lease shipments, an act which could have easily provoked a german attack. 
Atlantic Charter Conference
FDR and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the conference, declaring the allies war aims which included disarmament, self determination, freedom of the seas, and guarantees of each nations securities.
Tripartite Pact
Japan entered an alliance with ITaly and Germany in 1940. THe us responded to japanese agression with cutting off trade to japan. the embargo included oil which japan needed to fuel the war, 
Pearl Harbor
Japan attacked pearl harbor in responce to the embargo placed by the US. the US waited for japan to attack first to guarantee popular support of the war at home. 
the big three
Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill. first met at the teheran conferenfce where they planned D Day, the invasion of normandy france and agreed tp divide a defeated germany into occupation zones after the war. /allies fought the germans promarily in the soviet Union and in the Mediteranean until warly 1944 when the allied forces invaded france on DDay
War Production Board
during world war II. allowed the governmetn to acquire more power than it previously had by overseeing mobilization of industry toward the war effot. in return, buisnesssess were guaranteed generous profits. 
rationins of almost all consumer goods was imposed. the govt sponsored scientific research directed at imporving weapondry, deveeloping radar, and the atomic bomb. 
Labor Disputes Act 1943
passed in reaction to a disconcerting number of strikes in essential industries, allowed govt take over of buisnessess deemed necessary to national security, which gasme the govt authority to settle labor disputes.
hollywood during WWII
enlisted to create numerous propaganda films, both to encourage support on the homefront and to boost morale of the troops overseas. govt tripled over tthe course of the war.
Selective Training and Service act of 1940
created the first peacetime draft in US history and established the Selective Service System, which porivided about 10 million soldiers toward the war effort. 
african americans in WWII
more than a million blacks enlisted, but lived and worked in segregated uniits. the US army was not desegredated until after the war, during the truman administration in 1948. 
women during WWII
rosie the rivetor - used to persuade women to pick up factory jobs in war production to help the war effort. however, after the war, women were expected to put back on their aprons and return to the kitchen.
internment of Japanese Americans
1942 till 1945. govt imprisoned more than 110000 japanese americans, over 2/3 whom were born in the uS. afraid that they might serve as energy agents. none were ever charged with a crime, imprisonment was based entirely on ethnic background. the govt placed these jap americans in desolate prison camps far from the est coast, where they feared a japanese invasion would take place. most lost their homes and possessions as a result. 
Korematsu vs. United States
upheld the internment policy of the United States of Japanese Americans.
the victorious allies in 1945 met to redraw the world map. Stalin wanted to created a buffer zone between the soviet union and western europe, to surround himself with friendly nations toward moscow. necause of the red army, stalin was given a free hand in eastern europe. 
satellites and the Iron curtain
began 3 weeks after the Yalta conference when Soviet tanks rolled into Romania. 
the United Nations
created by the victorious allies to mediate future international disputes. 
the allies met at Postdam to decide how to implement the agreements of Yalta. this time, truman represented the US, as FDR had died in april. things did not go well as truman was not a patient man and differences between the US and the Soviet Union were growing more pronounced.
atomic bomb
used by truman because of american soviet animostiy because america feared soviets would enter the asian war and attempt to expand their influence further. the US wanted to display their power to imtimidate the Soviets. Also, Truman wanted to avoid further US casualties by an invation of Japan. atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki causing Japan to surrender.