APUSH Chapter 28

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APUSH Chapter 28

Questions From The American Pageant 13th Edition Advanced Placement Textbook, Chapter 28

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What were the names, subjects and authors of three books published before 1900 that included early progressivist ideas?
o   Wealth against Commonwealth by Lloyd about Standard Oil Co. o   The Theory of the Leisure Class by Veblen o   How the Other Half Lives by Riis (a Danish immigrant) about NY slums
What was the late 19th century philosophy on industry, and why wasn't it effective anymore?
·         Laissez Faire was not working in the new age because businesses were getting out of control.
List five groups of people associated with progressivism
o   Socialists (often European immigrants fueled by Old World ideas) o   Christians o   Feminists o   Greenback Labor Party o   Populists
What was muckraking?
writing critical exposés in magazines
Who was usually the target of muckraking? Give examples with two titles of muckraking pieces. 
Big businesses & Government. Ex: o   Frenzied Finance by Lawson about his own dishonest speculation company o   The Treason of the Senate by Phillips saying a majority of senators backed industry
T or F? Most Muckraking documents were factual and accurate. Explain.
True. The muckrakers wanted to avoid being sued for telling lies so they did careful research before writing.
What social injustices, besides corruption in big businesses, did muckraking expose?
o   Slums o   Bad Factory Conditions o   Inequality for blacks (Following the Color Line, by Baker) o   Child Labor (Bitter Cry of the Children, by Spargo) o   Addictive & alcohol laced patent medicines
Muckraking seemed noble, but what was its problem?
It relied on public response rather than finding a solution
What types of people were progressives?
Middle class people who felt cheated by other classes, above or below.
What were the four objectives of progressivism?
1. Gain more control in government and law 2. Reduce dishonesty in politics 3. Achieve direct election of senators 4. Women's suffrage
What rights did progressives push for to achieve more control in government and law?
o   Direct primaries: people chose candidates rather than party bosses o   “Initiative”: People can propose legislation themselves o   “Referendum”: Laws go on the ballot for approval by the people o   “Recall”: Ability to remove elected officials if they are found unfaithful
What changes were made to politics to reduce graft?
o   Corrupt-practice acts, limiting $ spendable on campaign o   Laws banning huge gifts from corps. o   Secret Australian ballots to avoid bribery.
Why was direct election of congressmen hard to achieve on a national level?
The current plutocratic congressmen liked the method that was in place. Finally the 17th ammendment was passed in 1913 to change it.
Did progressivism have the most success on the city, state, or national level? How?
City. They would hire non-political city managers that would make reforms and improve the wellbeing of the city.
Name one strength and one weakness of the the non-political city manager system.
o   Attacked slumlords, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, corrupt sale of franchise o   Often favored efficiency over democracy, taking power out of people’s hands
What were the four states with the most success at the non-political city manager system, and who were their managers?
o   #1: Wisconsin w/ Robert. M La Follette o   #2 Oregon o   #3 California w/ Hiram Johnson o   #4 New York w/ Charles Evans Hughes  
What were women's three mediums of progressive action?
o   Settlement houses (establishments to assist the needy in bad neighborhoods) o   Literary clubs. (educated women, often turned focus to current issues) o   Big organizations like Women’s Trade Union League
What kinds of issues did progressive women focuss on and why?
Maternal issues, because they were an extension to thier "women's shere".  
One of progressive women's target issues was factory saftety. What are four ways they were involved in this?
o   Florence Kelley, state of Illinois first factory inspector, and leading advocate o   Muller v. Oregon: Case proving some jobs were too hard on women o   Females created welfare, therefore it focused on women & kids o   Triangle shirtwaist fire 1911 pushed them to work harder for better conditions, created insurance for workers hurt on the job, and legislation regulating conditions
What progressive "crusade" was a fail in 1905?
Lochner vs. New York, in which a 14 hour work day for bakers was demanded. It did, however, give rise to the 10 hr work day in later years.
One of progressive women's target issues was alcoholism. How did they make a difference in this area?
They formed the Women's Christian Temperance Union, one of the biggest women's organizations in the world, and caused many small cities and counties to pass "dry laws"