APUSH Chapter 18 Set- 1

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APUSH Chapter 18 Set- 1

AP US History Chapter 18 Vocabulary Terms

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Political machine
1800s. A highly organized nineteenth- century political group, often compared to a new technological innovation because of its efficiency and complexity. Most machines developed with in major cities and were run by bosses who had influence over elected officials. Politicians within a machine provided services or favors for their constituents in exchange for votes, sometimes resulting in their being brought up on charges of bribery or corruption. Tammany Hall, New York City's Democratic Party political machine was a famous example. 
Tammany hall William Macy "Boss" Tweed
1800s. The most notorious political machine of the nineteenth century, located in New York City and run by Democrat Wm. Macy "Boss" Tweed. The excesses of the Tweed ring (such as expensive bribes made the taxpayer expense) led to an outcry for political reform. Political cartoonist Thomas Nast was instrumental in rousing public outrage over Boss Tweed which resulted in his eventual downfall. Tweed fled to Europe in 1871 to avoid prosecution but was eventually convicted and died in jail.
Nouveau riche
1800s. French for "new rich." referred to people who had become rich through business rather than through being born into a rich family or inherited wealth. The nouveau riche made up much of the American upper class of the late 1800s.
Late 1800s- early 1900s. High- density, cheap, five- or six- story housing units built in the late nineteenth century and designed for large urban populations. In the United States, tenements were built in northern cities to house the growing immigrant and later African- American population in the late 1800s and earl 1900s. Tenements were known for their severe overcrowding and lack of ventilation and plumbing.
John A. Roebling 1806- 1869/ Brooklyn Bridge 1880s
Roebling pioneered the development of suspension bridges and designed the Brooklyn Bridge, which was a technological feat in the 1880s. 
Thomas Nast
1804- 1902. newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical political cartoons he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. Political cartoonist_____ was instrumental in rousing public outrage over Boss Tweed which resulted in his eventual downfall. 
James McNeill Whistler
1834- 1903. A member of the Realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric.  Nest known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey No. 1, also known as Whistler's Mother.
Ashcan School
1908. Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators. The artists believed in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the US and included artists such as George Bellow and Edward Hopper. One critic maintained their works should be thrown out with other trash- hence the name "Ashcan School."
Armory Show
1913. An art show in the US organized  by the Ashcan School. It was controversial because it was most Americans' first exposure to European Impressionist and Post- Impressionist art, and caused a modernist revolution in American art
 Edwin Lawrence Godkin
1831- 1902. editor who established the Nation magazine in 1865. In 1881 he became an editor of the New York Evening Post and in 1883 editor in chief, carrying the Nation by then an influential critical weekly, which him as a weekly in connection with the Post. Godkin was a political independent and attacked the carpetbag regime, corruption under President Grant, free silver, organized labor, and high tariffs. His integrity gave Godkin's opinion weight. He was an important spokesman of laissez- faire in economic policy.