AP US History Ch. 11-12

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AP US History Ch. 11-12

AP US History Chapter

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Revolution of 1800
The Revolution of 1800 was so named by the winner of the 1800 election, Thomas Jefferson. He called this election a revolution because his party, the Republicans, peacefully and orderly received the power with nothing but acceptance by the federalists. This was how the founding fathers designed the government to be.
"Midnight Judges"
On the day before Adams turned the White House over to Jefferson, and the Jeffersonian Democrats, he appointed 42 Federalists to the federal courts. Federal Judges served for life, so Adams was protecting his supporters and insuring that the Judicial Branch would remain in the hands of the Federalist party and federalist ideals.
Louisianna Purchase
a land purchase transaction by the United States of America of 828,800 square miles (2,147,000 km2) of the French territory Louisiane in 1803. The U.S. paid 60 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000), a total cost of $15,000,000 for the Louisiana territory.
Aron Burr
Aaron Burr, an early American politician from the state of New Jersey, was the third Vice President of the United States, serving from 1801 to 1805 under Thomas Jefferson. A Revolutionary War hero, Aaron Burr was a member of the Democratic-Republican party, and rose to political prominence in the state of New York, where he held the positions of U.S. Senator and state Attorney General.
Non-Intercourse Act
On 1 March 1809, the Nonintercourse Act replaced the Embargo Act, allowing transatlantic trade to resume. The act, which went into effect on 20 May, suspended trade with only France and England until one of them would "revoke or modify her edicts, as that they shall cease to violate the neutral commerce of the United States." The act prohibited their ships from entering American ports and decreed it illegal for citizens of the United States to have "any intercourse with, or to afford any aid or supplies" to any French or English ships.
Robert Livingston
lawyer and diplomat. He served in the Continental Congress and helped draft the Declaration of Independence. As New York state's first chancellor From 1781 to 1783 he was U.S. secretary of foreign affairs. As minister to France from 1801 to 1804, he helped effect the Louisiana Purchase. In partnership with Robert Fulton, he later received a steamboat monopoly for New York waters
Justice Samuel Chase
President Thomas Jefferson was determined to seize control of the judiciary from the Federalists and to his own party. His allies in Congress had shortly after his inauguration repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, abolishing the lower courts created by the legislation and terminating their Federalist judges despite lifetime appointments; Chase, two years after the repeal in May 1803, had denounced it in his charge to a Baltimore grand jury, saying that it would "take away all security for property and personal liberty, and our Republican constitution will sink into a mobocracy
Lewis and Clark
set out in May 1804 to explore and map the American West
Embargo Act
It was an act that stated that American ships were no longer allowed to sail to foreign ports, and it also closed American ports to British ships.
Chesapeake Affair
The seizure and searching, off the coast of Virginia, of the USS Chesapeake in 1807 by the HMS Leopard, whose commander suspected that British deserters might be aboard. Four of the Chesapeake's crew were impressed. The incident was an inciting factor in the War of 1812.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
The remarkable leader of this slave revolt was Toussaint Breda (later called Toussaint L'Ouverture, and sometimes the “black Napoleon”). Slave revolts from this time normally ended in executions and failure – this story is the exception.
Berlin and Milan Decrees
Both decrees, issued by Napoleon of France, stated that no European country was to trade with the United Kingdom. It eventually led to economic ruin for France, while little happened to the economy of Britain, which had control of the Atlantic Ocean trade.
William Henry Harrison
William made a name for himself in the early Indian Wars and was rewarded with the governorship of the Indiana Territories, where he served from 1800-1812. He is most famous for his victory over the Shawnee chief Tecumseh at the battle at Tippecanoe Creek (November 7, 1811). The incident earned Harrison the nickname "Old Tippecanoe."
After the US revolutionary war, the British took liberties on the high seas by stopping US flagged vessels, and "impressing" American sailors into British service. This was one of many other actions which caused the war of 1812.
War Hawks
The War Hawks were a coterie of about twenty Democratic Republicans who persuaded Congress into supporting a declaration of war against Britain. These young, vocal members from the South and the western U.S. were voted into the House during mid-term congressional elections in 1810. They were united by outrage regarding the British practice of impressment (or abduction) of American sailors, and the British Orders in Council which were crippling the American economy.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
After this Tecumseh went on a tour among the tribes of the south to spread his doctrine of Indian Federation and during his absence the decisive Battle of Tippecanoe was fought, ending his dreams of a successful resistance. When the War of 1812 broke out he joined the British and was killed in the Battle of the Thames. After the Battle of Tippecanoe the Prophet, who had precipitated that battle and urged his followers on, assuring them that the bullets of the enemy could not harm them, fell into disrepute among his people, and after living in "a sort of disgrace" among various bands, died beyond the Mississippi in 1834.
Andrew Jackson
Jackson was always controversial, both as a general and as President. He personalized disputes and demonized opponents. In a notorious episode, Jackson broke open his first Cabinet and forced a rupture with Vice-President John C. Calhoun by championing the character of Peggy Eaton, the vivacious and controversial wife of the secretary of war
Tariff of 1816
In 1816, the Congress enacted a new tariff law, setting the custom duties high enough to discourage imports. The purpose was not to gain revenue but to protect factories that had grown up in America during the embargo and the War of 1812.
American industry was still too young to withstand British competition. Until it came of age, it had been protected by a wall of tariffs
"American System"
The American Way", was a mercantilist economic plan based on the "American School" ideas of Alexander Hamilton, expanded upon later by Friedrich List, consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building, and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise and form a national currency.