AP Language And Composition Vocabulary

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A Glossary Of Important Terms For The AP English Language And Composition Exam. 

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Ad hominem argument
this is an argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect 
the device of using character/ and or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning   
the repetition of sounds
a direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably commonly known 
the multiple meanings , either intentional or not, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage 
a similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them 
the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun 
A figure of speech involving a seeming contradiction of ideas, words, clauses, or sentences with a balanced grammatical structure 
A terse statement of known authorship that expresses a general truth or moral principle 
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love 
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work
a representation in which the subject's distinctive features are deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic effect.   
Based on inverted parallelism, it is a rhetorical figure in which two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of terms 
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb 
slang or informality in speech or writing 
a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects  
the nonliteral, associative meaning of a word (implied, suggested meaning)
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion attitude, or color 
refers to the writer's word choices, clearness, or effectiveness. Creates the writer's style 
"instructive", have the primary aim of teaching or instructing moral or ethical principles 
is a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept 
Extended metaphor 
a metaphor developed at great length
Figurative language 
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid 
Figure of Speech 
a device used to produce figurative language 
Generic conventions 
help to define each genre (Ex. essay vs. journalism) 
the major category into which a literary work fits 
"sermon" can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement 
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions 
Inference/ infer
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented 
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language 
Irony/ Ironic
the contrast between what is stated and what is meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true (Types: verbal, situational, dramatic) 
placing dissimilar items, descriptions, or ideas close together for comparison or contrast 
Loose sentence 
a type of sentence in which the main idea comes first, followed  by grammatical units. (seem relaxed, conversational)
a figure of speech in which the name of one object is replaced by that of another closely associated with it 
Similar to tone and atmosphere; deals with the verbal units and a speaker'e attitude 
the telling of a story or account of an event 
figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words 
figure of speech wherein contradictory terms are grouped together to suggest a paradox 
a statement that appears to be opposed to common sense, but in the end contains some degree of truth or validity 
the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs to give structural similarity  
a work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect or ridicule 
an adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish  
Periodic sentence 
a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end 
Predicate adjectives 
one type of subject complement - an adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb 
Predicate nominative  
a second type of subject complement- renames the subject  
refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms, because they are written in ordinary language 
Rhetorical appeal
persuasive device by which a writer tries to sway the audience's attention and response to any work (Logos, Ethos, Pathos)
Rhetorical modes 
describes the variety, the conventions, and the purpose of the major kinds of writing (Exposition, argumentative, description, narration) 
the evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending syntax, diction, etc. 
Subject complement 
the word or cause that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes the subject of the sentence by wither renaming it or describing it
Subordinate clause 
has both a subject and a verb, but it does not express a complete thought
a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises (major and minor) leading to a conclusion 
the way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences 
the ironic minimizing of fact, presents something less significant than it is (litotes, and meiosis) 
intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights  
a writer's intellectual position or emotion regarding the subject of the writing 
Concrete detail 
details directly from a passage 
Descriptive details 
detail appealing to the visual sense 
Narrative devices 
the tools of the storyteller 
Narrative technique 
the style of "telling" the story 
Persuasive devices 
words that intensify the emotional effect 
Stylistic devices 
all of the elements in language that contribute to style (diction, syntax, tone, ect.)