AP Language And Composition Vocabulary

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A Glossary Of Important Terms For The AP English Language And Composition Exam. 

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Ad hominem argument
 
this is an argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect 
Allegory 
 
the device of using character/ and or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning   
Alliteration 
 
the repetition of sounds
Allusion 
 
a direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably commonly known 
Ambiguity 
 
the multiple meanings , either intentional or not, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage 
Analogy 
 
a similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them 
Antecedent 
 
the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun 
Antithesis 
 
A figure of speech involving a seeming contradiction of ideas, words, clauses, or sentences with a balanced grammatical structure 
Aphorism 
 
A terse statement of known authorship that expresses a general truth or moral principle 
Apostrophe 
 
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love 
Atmoshpere 
 
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work
Caricature 
 
a representation in which the subject's distinctive features are deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic effect.   
Chiasmus
 
Based on inverted parallelism, it is a rhetorical figure in which two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of terms 
Clause 
 
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb 
Colloquialism 
 
slang or informality in speech or writing 
Conceit 
 
a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects  
Connotation
 
the nonliteral, associative meaning of a word (implied, suggested meaning)
Denotation 
 
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion attitude, or color 
Diction 
 
refers to the writer's word choices, clearness, or effectiveness. Creates the writer's style 
Didactic 
 
"instructive", have the primary aim of teaching or instructing moral or ethical principles 
Euphemism 
 
is a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept 
Extended metaphor 
 
a metaphor developed at great length
Figurative language 
 
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid 
Figure of Speech 
 
a device used to produce figurative language 
Generic conventions 
 
help to define each genre (Ex. essay vs. journalism) 
Genre 
 
the major category into which a literary work fits 
Homily 
 
"sermon" can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
Hyperbole
 
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement 
Imagery 
 
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions 
Inference/ infer
 
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented 
Invective 
 
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language 
Irony/ Ironic
 
the contrast between what is stated and what is meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true (Types: verbal, situational, dramatic) 
Juxtapositon 
 
placing dissimilar items, descriptions, or ideas close together for comparison or contrast 
Loose sentence 
 
a type of sentence in which the main idea comes first, followed  by grammatical units. (seem relaxed, conversational)
Metonymy 
 
a figure of speech in which the name of one object is replaced by that of another closely associated with it 
Mood
 
Similar to tone and atmosphere; deals with the verbal units and a speaker'e attitude 
Narrative
 
the telling of a story or account of an event 
Onomatopoeia 
 
figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words 
Oxymoron 
 
figure of speech wherein contradictory terms are grouped together to suggest a paradox 
Paradox
 
a statement that appears to be opposed to common sense, but in the end contains some degree of truth or validity 
Parallelism 
 
the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs to give structural similarity  
Parody 
 
a work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect or ridicule 
Pedantic 
 
an adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish  
Periodic sentence 
 
a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end 
Predicate adjectives 
 
one type of subject complement - an adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb 
Predicate nominative  
 
a second type of subject complement- renames the subject  
Prose 
 
refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms, because they are written in ordinary language 
Rhetorical appeal
 
persuasive device by which a writer tries to sway the audience's attention and response to any work (Logos, Ethos, Pathos)
Rhetorical modes 
 
describes the variety, the conventions, and the purpose of the major kinds of writing (Exposition, argumentative, description, narration) 
Style 
 
the evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending syntax, diction, etc. 
Subject complement 
 
the word or cause that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes the subject of the sentence by wither renaming it or describing it
Subordinate clause 
 
has both a subject and a verb, but it does not express a complete thought
Syllogism 
 
a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises (major and minor) leading to a conclusion 
Syntax 
 
the way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences 
Understatement 
 
the ironic minimizing of fact, presents something less significant than it is (litotes, and meiosis) 
Wit 
 
intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights  
Attitude 
 
a writer's intellectual position or emotion regarding the subject of the writing 
Concrete detail 
 
details directly from a passage 
Descriptive details 
 
detail appealing to the visual sense 
Narrative devices 
 
the tools of the storyteller 
Narrative technique 
 
the style of "telling" the story 
Persuasive devices 
 
words that intensify the emotional effect 
Stylistic devices 
 
all of the elements in language that contribute to style (diction, syntax, tone, ect.)