AP Government ChAPter 15 Terms

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AP Government ChAPter 15 Terms

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According to Weber, a hierarchal authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on merit principle, and behaves impersonally. Governs modern states.
A key inducement used by political machines. A job, promotion, or contract given for political reasons, not merit or competence.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed in 1883. Created federal civil service so hiring would be based on merit, not privelege.
civil service
System of hiring/ promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create nonpartisan gov't. service.
merit principle
Hiring based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to make talented/skilled administration.
Hatch Act
Law prohibits gov't. emloyees from active participation in partisan politics.
Office of Personnel Management
In charge of hiring for most federal agencies. 
GS (General Schedule) Rating
Schedule for federal employees ranging from GS 1 to GS 18, by which salaries can be keyed to rating and experience.
Senior Executive Service
Elite cadre of about 9,000 federal gov't. managers, established by Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. Mostly career officials, but some political appointees, not needing Senate confirmation.
independent regulatory commission
Gov't. agency responsible for some sector of the economy. Makes/ enforces rules to protect public interest. Judges disputes over these rules.
government corporation
Gov't. organization that, like business corporations, provides service that could be provided by private sector and typically charges(Ex: US Postal Service).
independent executive agency
Gov't. not accounted for by cabinet depts., independent regulatory commissions, and gov't. corporations. Administrators usually appointed by the president (Ex: NASA).
policy implementation
Stage of policymaking between establishment and consequences for whom it affects. Involves translating goals and objectives into operating, ongoing program.
standard operating procedure (SOP)
Used by bureaucrats to bring uniformity to complex organizations. Improves fairness and makes personnel interchangeable.
administrative discretion
Authority of administrors to select  response to a given problem. Greatest when SOP doesn't fit case.
street-level bureaucrats
Coined by Michael Lipsky. Refers to those in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion.
Use of gov't. autjority to control/ change a practice in private sector.
Lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which gov't. rules have been established and bureaucracies created.
command-and-control policy
Typical system of regulation where gov't. tells businsses how to reach certain goals, checks that commands are followed, and punishes offenders.
incentive system
Use of marketlike strategies to manage public policy.
executive order
Regulations originating from executive branch. One method presidents can use to control bureaucracy.
iron triangle
Mutual relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees/ subcommittees. Dominates some areas of domestic policymaking.