Anthropology Is Part Of History

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Midterm 1

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The concept of tabula rasa
implies that individuals are shaped primarily by their experiences, which differ from culture to culture.
Because culture is socially constructed and learned rather than biologically inherited,
all societies must somehow ensure that culture is adequately transmitted from one generation to the next.
Enculturation is the process of transmitting
culture from one generation to the next.
The agents of enculturation
-vary, depending on the structure of the family into which a child is born. -include peer groups and school teachers. c. are at first the members of the family into which the child is born. d. all of these choices e. are persons involved in transmitting culture to the next generation.
Which of the following statements about self-awareness is/are correct?
all choices, except American children develop self-awareness earlier than do Ju/'hoansi children
____________ is/are the distinctive way a person thinks, feels, and behaves.
Through naming, a person not only has a personal identity,
but also recognition by the group of the person's birthright and social identity.
Among most Native American groups, the ___________ were considered sacred individuals especially blessed by the Great Spirit.
two spirit
As Margaret Mead's pioneering studies suggest,
biological differences between males and females are extremely malleable; biology is not destiny.
Independence training is more likely in
small nuclear families.
Dependence training is more likely in
small-scale horticultural societies where a man has many wives.
Early studies of the relationship between personality and culture had assumed that they were essentially the same; culture stamped out identical personalities like cars off an assembly line. A more statistical concept of psychological traits in a society
modal personality.
The use of standardized tests, like the Rohrshach and TAT, to develop the modal personality of a culture can be problematic because
tests devised in one cultural setting may not be appropriate in another.
Which of the following statements about modal personality is/are correct?
-Although a modal personality may be found for a particular society, a range of personalities may exist in that society. -Although the modal personality may be considered "normal" for that society, it may be shared by less than half of the population. -Data on modal personality are usually gathered by the use of psychological tests such as the Rorschach and TAT. -Those who study modal personality accept the fact that there may be abnormal individuals in that society.
Studies of ____________ were developed during World War II to explore the idea that basic personality traits were shared by most of the people in modern nations.
national character
While critics dismiss national character studies, they are important to students today because
they illustrate the dangers of generalizing from minimal evidence to explain complex social phenomena.
Anthropologist Francis Hsu who suggests that we use the concept of ____________ to understand a country's culture and related personality traits.
core values.
Among the Plains Indians, a man who wore women's clothes, performed women's work, and married another man
-was considered normal. -was sought out as a curer, artist, and matchmaker. -was assumed to have great spiritual power. -might have been homosexual.
The standards that define normal behavior for any culture
are determined by that culture itself.
Ethnic psychoses are
are mental disorders specific to particular ethnic groups.
Personality is a product of
enculturation, as expressed by individuals
Human children are ______ to survive without culture
Personality characteristics related to gender are strongly affected by...
the way a group makes its living.
Both hunting-and-gathering societies and industrial societies promote _____ in their mobile nuclear families.
independence training
______ determines what is normal in a society
Though rare, about 1% of the world's population are ______, born with reproductive organs, genitalia, and/or sex chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female.
While cultures define normalcy, psychoses like ________, the most common of psychoses, suggest that major categories of mental disorders may be universal.
Enculturation begins with the development of ______ -- the ability to identify individuality.
The behavioral environment in which the self acts includes _______, the moral values, ideals, and principals that are purely cultural in origin.
normative orientation
_______ socializes people to think of themselves in terms of the larger whole.
Dependence training
Hsu's concept of _______ focuses on those values especially promoted by a particular culture.
core values
______ are those people who cross-over or occupy a culturally accepted intermediate position in the binary male-female gender construction.
Psychological disorders like anorexia nervosa are ________, mental disorders specific to particular groups.
ethnic psychoses
is the cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
Native American food foragers established a way of life in New England and southern Quebec that lasted about 5,000 years. This is indicative of
effective cultural adaptation.
A/an ____________ is a geographic region in which a number of different societies follow similar patterns of life.
culture area
Which of the following could be considered part of a society's "culture core"?
-the belief that only a chief can distribute apples to his fellow villagers -the belief that only a chief has strong enough magic to plant apple trees -the number of hours a people work each day -a taboo against eating certain foods
Which of the following research topics might be of interest to an ethnoscientist?
The ways in which a group classifies and explains the world.
Today, about __________ people use food foraging as their subsistence strategy.
Today food foraging societies
are found only in remote, marginal areas.
Which of the following does not correctly describe food foraging societies?
They are primitive because they did not progress to a higher level.
In a food foraging society, how do people store food for the future?
They rely on the generosity of others to share food.
_____________ relates to the number of people who can be supported in a particular area give the technologies and resources available.
Carrying capacity
To say that food foraging societies are egalitarian means that
the only status differences are age and sex.
As people learned to farm and their settlements grew,
society became more elaborately structured as people began to share important resources.
______________ is an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut and burned, and then crops planted among the ashes.
Swidden farming
_______________ involves using technologies such as irrigation, fertilizers, plows harnessed to draft animals, and so on to grow crops.
Intensive agriculture
The Bakhtiari are
a pastoral society which revolves around two seasonal migrations in search of better grazing lands.
Aztec society in the 16th century
had a capital city with a population five times the size of London at that time.
In the 16th century, the Aztec cities of Tenochtitlán and Tlatelolco
-utilized series of chinampas for their agricultural production. -were centers of trade. -had important, well supplied markets. -were based on intensive agriculture, with corn being their major crop.
Preindustrial cities
have had a much longer history of success than industrial cities.
North American anthropologist Julian Steward developed the concept of ____________, that is, the interaction between the technology of a culture with their environments.
culture type
If a group is well adapted to its environment, it will change...
very little as long as conditions remain the same.
a geographic region in which a number of different societies follow a similar (not necessarily identical) pattern of life.
A culture area
Prolonged nursing of infants acts as a mode of ________
Many Bakhtiari are...
well educated, having attended university at home or abroad.
A/an __________ system is one in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed.
The productive resources used by all societies to produce goods and services include
labor. technology raw materials.
Traditionally, American society's sexual division of labor fell into which of the following patterns?
rigid segregation
Which of the following situations involving sexual division of labor are likely to produce a sense of equality among males and females?
Societies in which both males and females do each others' work without embarrassment and societies in which males and females have their own separate jobs, but the jobs are considered complementary and equally important.
Among the Ju/'hoansi, children are not expected to contribute much to subsistence until
their late teens.
In most societies, cooperation takes place in the basic unit of the __________, where both production and consumption occur.
In many nonindustrial societies,
cooperative work is usually done with a festive, sociable air.
In contemporary industrial societies, and even many non-industrial societies, _____________ is common because of the diversity of tasks and skills make it hard for any one person to know all of the skills appropriate for their age and gender.
craft specialization
Tools tend to be fewer and simpler among
mobile food foragers and pastoralists.
The mode of distribution called reciprocity refers to the exchange of goods and services
for the purpose of maintaining social relationships and gaining prestige.
When an Australian hunter gives away most of his meat to relatives without specifying what is expected in return, he is exemplifying
generalized reciprocity.
A Navajo gives ten of his sheep that he knows are infected with disease to a Hopi in exchange for a jeep. This is an example of
negative reciprocity.
____________ are/is important in societies where the accumulation of wealth or property could upset the more-or-less egalitarian social order.
Leveling mechanisms
The display of wealth for social prestige is called
conspicuous consumption.
In contrast to most viewpoints, the Kula ring demonstrates that
not all trade is motivated by economic considerations.
From an economist's point of view, "market exchange" is defined by
the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and demand.
Typically, until well within the 20th century, ___________ was carried out in specific localities.
market exchange
___________ is anything used to make payments for other things, as well as a measure of their value.
The _____________ may be defined as the system by which producers of goods and services provide marketable commodities that for various reasons escape government controls.
informal economy
One of the newest innovations in the market-research and design industry is
Everyone in the world wants the same goods and services.
__________ is a transaction in which a woman and man establish a continuing claim to the right of sexual access to one another, and in which the woman involved becomes eligible to bear children.
The ability of females and males to have sex at any time would have been advantageous to early humans in that
sexual activity and other factors operated to tie people more closely to the social groups vital for their survival.
In all cultures, the ___________ provides an absolute prohibition on sexual contact between certain kin, but the definitions of who constitute close kin vary from culture-to-culture.
incest taboo
The author uses the Nayar of southwest India to illustrate that rules about sexual access can be highly variable. Nayar women
go through three transactions that define sexual eligibility, rights of sexual access, and legitimacy of children.
______________ are relatives by birth, or so-called "blood kin."
Consanguineal kin
Detailed census records made in Roman Egypt show that brother-sister marriages among members of the non-royal farming class were common. What light does this shed on the incest taboo?
It demonstrates that despite the human tendency to avoid inbreeding, it occasionally occurs and may even be preferred.
Marriage within a particular group of individuals is called
___________ is a marriage in which an individual has a single spouse.
According to ____________, human thought processes are structured into contrastive pairs of polar opposites, such as light Levi-Straussversus dark.
The Nayar family is consanguine because
women live with their brothers and dependent offspring.
Marriage to more than one husband is called
The levirate and the sororate
function to maintain the relationship between the family of the bride and the family of the groom.
Serial monogamy is characterized by
a man or a woman marrying or living with a series of partners in succession (one after the other but not at the same time).
In a matrilateral cross-cousin marriage, a man marries the daughter of his
mother's brother.
Bride __________ refers to the period of time a groom is expected to work for his bride's family.
In which of the following situations would you expect to find the custom of bride price?
A bride and groom go to live with the groom's people.
When the economy is based on ____________ and when the man does most of the productive work, the bride's people may give a dowry that protects the woman against desertion and is a statement of her economic status.
intensive agriculture
The woman/woman marriage custom found in sub-Saharan Africa
a. enables the woman who is the wife of the female husband to raise her status and live a more secure life. b. enables a woman without sons to inherit a share of her husband's property. d. confers legitimacy on the children of a woman who had been unable to find a husband. e. enables the woman who adopts a male identity to raise her status.
Like marriage, divorce in non-Western societies is a matter of great concern to the couple's families, since marriage is more of a/an ___________ than a religious matter.
An important source of contacts in trying to arrange an Indian marriage is/are the
-social club. -match making businesses. -newspaper personals.