Anatomy Exam 2-Ch 5

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Chapter 5 Mastering A&P

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Damage to elastic fibers in the skin of the elderly results in __________.
skin dryness
hair loss
Cell divisions within the stratum __________ replace more superficial cells which eventually die and fall off. 
The epidermal layer that consists almost entirely of keratin is the __________.
stratum granulosum stratum germinativum stratum lucidum stratum corneum    
Cerumen is produced by glands located in the __________.
axilla palms and soles pubic area ear canal
The layer primarily responsible for the strength of the skin is the __________ layer.
epidermal reticular hypodermal papillary
Which of these cells produce the fibers found within the reticular layer of the dermis?
fibroblasts reticulocytes mast cells keratinocytes
Which of the following glands secretes oil into the hair follicle?
sebaceous apocrine ceruminous eccrine
Sudoriferous glands are also called __________ glands.
ceruminous sweat sebaceous mammary
The process of skin repair after injury begins with ___________.
stem cell activation formation of scar tissue formation of granulation tissue formation of a blood clot
Which of the following is NOT part of the cutaneous membrane?
epidermis hypodermis reticular layer papillary layer
Which accessory structure is NOT found within the dermis?
lamellated corpuscle tactile corpuscle sebaceous gland arrector pili muscle All of the listed structures are found within the dermis
What structures do you find within the hypodermis?
  fat and the cutaneous plexus sebaceous glands and sweat glands hair follicles and arrector pili muscles hair shaft and pores of sweat glands
The papillary layer is more superficial than the reticular layer of dermis. True or false?
An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is 
vitamin B
vitamin D
vitamin A
vitamin E
vitamin C
The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are
dendritic cells. melanocytes. adipocytes. keratinocytes. fibroblasts.
When the arrector pili muscles contract, 
  "goose bumps" are formed. shivering occurs. sweat is released from sweat glands. hairs are shed. the skin changes color.
The dermis is composed of the papillary layer and the _______.
cutaneous plexus
reticular layer 
The two components of the integumentary system are the
epidermis and dermis. epidermis and superficial fascia. cutaneous membrane and hypodermis. cutaneous membrane and accessory structures. integument and hypodermis.
Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ perspiration
  inactive sensible active insensible latent
________ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system
  Squamous cells Basal cells Melanocytes Dendritic cells Merkel cells
The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the
  basal lamina. papillary layer. stratum granulosum. stratum corneum. stratum germinativum.
The epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue?
  nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium simple squamous epithelium transitional epithelium keratinized stratified squamous epithelium areolar connective tissue
While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?
Melanocytes ________
manufacture melanin from the amino acid alanine secrete melanin from the basal surface store melanin in melanosomes are located in the stratum corneum
Skin exposed to ultraviolet light increases production of __________.
The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are
  melanin and chlorophyll. carotene and xanthophyll. xanthophyll and melanin. carotene and melanin. melanin and chromatin.
Cyanosis signifies that a patient
has had too much sun. has been exposed to cyanide. has oxygen-starved skin. has been kept out of the sun. has an allergic reaction.
The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of sunlight.
  keratin hemoglobin sebum melanin carotene
The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of sunlight.
  keratin hemoglobin sebum melanin carotene
Which of the following is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation?
wrinkles increased activity by melanocytes chromosomal damage in germinative cells or melanocytes vitiligo production of cholecalciferol within epidermal cells
Which of the following statements about rickets is not true?
  leads to weak bones prevented by vitamin D leads to skeletal deformity prevented by sunlight is usually genetic
The epidermis receives blood from which of the following?
epidermal arteries dermal arteries called the cutaneous plexus dermal veins called the papillary plexus dermal arteries called the papillary plexus
The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the ________ layer.
reticular subcutaneous epidermal hypodermal papillary
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.
subcutaneous papillary reticular hypodermal epidermal
Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed
papillitis. epidermatitis. melanocytis. superficialis. dermatitis.
The layer of soft keratin within the hair shaft is the ___________.
  hair bulb cuticle medulla root
The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the
medulla. cuticle. shaft. root. hair bulb.
Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by
soft keratin. melanocytes. dermal papillae. carotene cells. keratinocytes.
Lanugo is found
on the palms of the hands and on the soles of the feet. on the palms of the hands. on the scalp. on the soles of the feet. on a fetus.
Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ________ glands.
mammary ceruminous apocrine sweat sebaceous merocrine sweat
The ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.
sebaceous merocrine sweat axillary apocrine sweat ceruminous
Which of the following happens if body temperature rises above normal?
  Circulation in the skin decreases. Evaporative cooling stops. Blood flow to the skin increases. The activity of melanocytes increases. Sweat gland activity decreases.
Fingernails grow from which structure?
lunula hyponychium nail body nail root
Fingernails grow from which structure?
lunula hyponychium nail body nail root
Collagen to repair a deep skin wound is produced by __________.
epidermal fibroblasts
dermal macrophages
dermal fibroblasts
epidermal keratinocytes
Nail production occurs at the nail
  body. hyponychium. root. bed. cuticle.
Mast cells are triggering a response to injury during which phase of repair?
maturation inflammatory proliferation migratory
In a penetrating wound, ________ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.
dendritic cells macrophages muscle cells fibroblasts granulation cells
If a fair-skinned person is sunburned, why does his or her skin turn red?
  The number of red melanocytes in the skin increases. The blood supply to the skin decreases. Melanocytes increase production of red pigments. Increased heat causes the skin to turn red. The blood flow to the skin increases.
Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because
  contraction in the area of the injury brings cells of adjacent strata together. the epidermis of the skin has a rich supply of small blood vessels. fibroblasts in the dermis can give rise to new germinal cells in the epidermis. cells of the stratum germinativum cannot migrate to other positions in the skin. stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components of the skin even after injury.
Scar tissue is the result of
  large numbers of collagen fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area. a thickened stratum germinativum in the area of the injury. increased numbers of epidermal layers in the area of the injury. increased numbers of fibroblasts in the injured area. a lack of sebaceous glands in the injured area.