51 cards

Midterm Review

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Reasons for Grouping
Positive - Power Security Social Bond Negative - Loss of Freedom Individualism Loss of Self
Manifest Function Latent Function
intended to accomplish unintended or hidden Robert Merton
Theories of Social Structure (How Society holds together?)
1. Divine will – obedience/ revelation 2. Structural Function theory – held together by common agreements, normative consensus 3. Conflict theory – held together by power embodied in laws, power of coercion and the golden rule
Transitive Triads
where two people have same relationship with the third
Intransitive Triads
where one tries to be friends with two who dislike each other
process of exchanging one culture for another
Exchange Theory
a micro sociological theoretical perspective having as its central concern to explain and reveal the key process by which people seek to maximize by exchanging rewards with each other
Two approaches to Micro Sociology
Symbolic Interaction Theory Exchange Theory
4 principle of recruitment
Open Minded Principle Network Recruitment Principle Cosmopolitan Growth Principle Principle of Dense Origins
Rational Choice Theory
People are choosers We tend to do what is rewarding, although it might not be immediately rewarding – pain/pleasure principle Rewards can be material or non material Where do rewards come from – usually from others How do we get those rewards
C.H. Cooley
The Looking Glass Self - how we view ourselves, how others feel and react
George Homans – Exchanging Rewards – the four principles of frequency
The law of liking – if you engage with equal ranks than more than likely you will like them The law of inequality – people of different ranks have different levels of attachment The law of agreement – the members in a group like each other, the more they agree The law of conformity – the more solid a group the greater demand for conformity
Differences between cool - burning communes
Unexpected results with cool and burning communes, cool ones lasted longer
5 basic social institutions
Family Economy Religion Political Order Education
3 major theories about social systems
Functionalism Social Evolution Conflict
Functional Societies
sub-groups within the commune tend to divide the commune at some point
social structures have functions, what is the structure there for
Social Evolution Theory
survival and adaptability
Conflict Theory
power and how does it affect social structure
Genetic Relationships
Mark Schuckits’s study on alcoholism presents evidence for genetic response
Humans have been growing more and taller which suggest genetics
The rebuttal is that a better diet and health conditions are the reason, and the question should be why weren’t we growing more earlier in history
People in society can be described as?
Can be described as plastic – people can shift environmental behavior
Environmental Suppressors
environment factors that hinder human growth
Feral children
children who are literally untamed, or born with severe disabilities
Stimulus Response (S-R)
a simple model of learning in which humans play only a passive role
Cognitive structures
general rules that govern reason (Jean Piaget) o Sensorimotor – begins at birth until about 2, senses and motor skills o Preoperational – begins at about 2 until age 7, language learning o Concrete operational – begins at about 7 until age 12, develop a number of logical principles o Formal operational – generally begins at age 12 but it is possible never to reach this stage, thinking abstractly and to impose logical tests to their ideas
is a jargon of made-up nouns and verbs, often including some borrowed from the language of the dominant group, highly variable in terms of word order and little in the way of grammar
the development of Pidgin into a real language very different from any other
Differential socialization
how roles in a society shape people
Melvin Kohn – 1965 study
he did a study on the upbringings of children from different social classes and the main values stressed by parents o Working class parents were more concerned about their children conforming to the expectations of others o Middle class parents were more concerned about their children being capable of self expression and independence Kohn then realized that more of an emphasis on parental occupation than on class
Erving Goffman 1961 impression management
the conscious manipulation of scenery, props, costumes and our behavior to convey a particular role to others
Offender versatility
offenders usually commit many crimes ranging from different types, with no strong inclination to pursue a specific criminal act
Walter Grove produced 3 facts about crime
o The variables most associated with crime are age and gender o Athletic body types are more likely to commit crimes o Psychological drives like testosterone and adrenaline
Subculture deviance
is the result of subcultures disagreeing with the norms of society but now having the influence to change such norms
structural strain
frustration caused by a person’s position in the social structure, especially the stratification system
4 types of Bonds in society
o Attachments – how much one cares for others and its reciprocal o Investments – we are tied to conformity through our attachments to others but also through the stakes we have built up in life o Involvements – that time and energy have a limit towards deviant activities o Beliefs – about how people should behave
a condition of normalness
Folkways Mores
morally accepted sentiments stringent morally accepted sentiments
Differential Theory
who you hang out with, 2 factors how long and how intimate
Deviance Process – John Lofland
o Threat – Physical, Psychological o Encapsulation – Facilitating Hardware, Facilitating Others, Subjective Ability, Objective Proximity o Closure
Degree of Social Control
o Principle of Dependence – the more dependent members are on a group, the more they conform to the norms o Principle of Visibility – to the extent that the behavior of group members is easily observed by other members, their degree of conformity to group norms will be greater o Principle of Extensiveness – the greater the scope and extent of norms upheld by the group, the greater will be the contribution to overall social order
Deterrence Theory
the more rapid, the more certain, and the more severe the punishment for a crime, the lower the rate at which such crimes will occur
Recidivism rate
the proportion of persons who commit a new crime after having served a prior sentence in jail or on probation
Marx's view on classes
• Marx saw four classes in Roman society: patricians, knights, plebians and slaves; while he saw only two in modern society: bourgeoisie and proletariat • Classes do not exist unless they struggle with another and that class struggle is inevitable
people who were marginal to the economy: vagrants, migrant workers, beggars, criminals, Gypsies
Max Weber suggested that three factors defined society
o Property – the control of property o Prestige – fame as important as money and can gain influence o Power – the ability to get ones way despite the resistance of others
Status inconsistency
a person could be rich but have lower prestige and little power
Cultural Capital
classes tend to develop and maintain distinctive cultures typically consisting of styles of speech, etiquette, dress, body language, interest, information and taste
Ralf Dahrendorf had the most penetrating analysis of Marx’s classless society
o Everyone would be in one class but they would not have equally power and prestige, or even economically o Then Who is the State? o Those who control the means of production effectively own the means
Gaeteno Mosca The Ruling Class a three step proof
o Human societies cannot exist without political organization o Whenever there is political organization there must be inequalities in power o Because human nature is inherently self-serving, people with greater power will use it to exploit others and therefore to gain material advantages
Conflict Theory of Stratification
how persons at the top will take advantage of others and how the political system can be used to influence the stratification system