Life Span Development

14 cards

Chapters 1 & 2

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what is the study of human development?
the science that seeks to understand how & why people change, & how & why they remain the same, as they grow older
What are the 5 characteristics of development?
Multidirectional-change not always linear, gains & losses Multicontextual-human life must be understood as embedded in mnay contexts Multicultural-many cultural settings, each w/ a distinct set of values, traditions & tools for living Multidisciplinary-many academic fields, psychology, biology, education, ect. contribute data to science of development Plastic-every individual, every trait w/in can be altered at any point in the life span
What are the three domains human development are separated?
biosocial-includes physical growth & development as well as family, community, & cultural factors that affect growth & development cognitive-mental processes, which individual thinks, learns, & communicates, plus institutions involved psychosocial-emotions, personality characteristics, & relationships w/ other people. also community & culture
What are the 3 contexts that affect development?
Historic-period when you were born affects your lives & thoughts Socioeconomic-influences the social interactions & opportunities a person might have Cultural-values, assumptions, customs that are maintained by a group affects you choices
What are the steps of the scientific method?
1. formulate a research questions-pose a question 2. develop a hypothesis-predict what will happen 3. test the hypothesis-conduct research that will provide evidence(data) 4. draw conclusions-support or refute the hypothesis 5. make the finding available-for other scientists to evaluate and test
What are controversies that echo throughout the study of development?
Nature/Nurture-how much & which aspects of development affected by genes & how much by environment continuity/discontinuity-how much of human growth builds gradually on previous development, & how much transformation occurs suddenly difference/deficit-when difference is considered diversity to be celebrated & when considered a problem to correct
What is scientific observation?
the unobtrusive watching & recording of subjects behavior, eith in the lab or in a natural setting
limitation of observation?
does not indicate what causes the behavior observed
what is correlation?
relation between two variable such that one is likely to occur when the other occurs or is likely to increase(decreases) when other increases(decreases)
when is a correlation positive & negative?
positive if occurrence of one variable makes it more likely that the other will occur negative if the occurrence of one makes it less likely that the other will occur
What are the components of an experiment?
independent variable-variable that is added or changed in an experiment dependent variable-variable that might change as a result of changing or adding the independent variable in and experiment(response)
what is a survey?
research method in which info is collected from a large # of peopole, through written questionnaires or personal interviews
what is a case study?
research method that focuses on the life history, attitudes, behavior, & emotions of a single individual
what are the research designs?
cross-sectional research-groups of people, diff from other in age, similar in other ways, are compared longitudinal research-same people studied over long time to measure both change & stability as they age cross-sequential research-combines cross-sectional & longitudinal research.