Juvenile Delinquency

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Nature Of Youth Crime

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What is Juveline Delinquency?
Refers to the violations of the criminal law by minors.
How did attitudes towards children change over time and what contributed to the changes?
People's view of children began to change in the 1500's and 1600's. Children began to be seen as diff from adults- as immature and dependent on adults for guidance and protection. Reason #1 : Decline in death rate of children. Made it easier for parents to form attachments with them to be able to see they needed care and protection. Reason #2: extention of education. Increased need to formal education. Also higlighted the immaturity and dependence of what children knew and what adults knew. As people came to view and children diff. then adults, they were more inclined to view and treat juveniles differenty that adult offenders.
What are the Child Savers?
Society for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency founded the New York State House of Refuge ( the first institution designed to accomodate juvenile delinquents.) "Child Savers" believed that the roots of juvenile delinquency was a lack of moral education and standards and advocated that juvenile institutions include a significant educational and rehabilitative component.
Describe significant developments leading up to the creation of the first juvenile court.
Social changes: Rural to urban society. Urba areas were populated by a large number of poor people, and increased crime. Large slums began to appear as a result of the poor not finding work. Children spent much time on the streets, stealing etc. 1st leading reason: Concerns about the poor children growing up in the city. concerns mostly from the middle-class women. They felt that these children needed protection and guidance. Lobbied to get status offense laws passed, also lobbied for a special court(juvenile court) and correctional facilities. 2nd leading reason:Many upper class people were disturbed by the poor people, especially immigrants.INVENTION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IS DUE TO THE DESIRE OF UPPER-CLASS PEOPLE TO PROTECT THEIR PRIVILEDGED POSITION IN SOCIETY.
ex parte Crouse (1838)
Established the principle of parens patriae (the state as parent). Which meant that it was the State's duty to not only protect the public interest but also to intevene and serve as a guardian of the interests of the children.
Ilinois Juvenile Court Act(1899)
The Child Saver's resulted in the establishment of the first juvenile court in Cook County, Illinois in 1899.Established under doctrine of parens patriae(state as parent). The state's role was not to prosecute the offender but rather it's mission was designed to be flexible and to tailor to a juvenile's individual needs with the goal of rehabilitation.Seperation of youths from adults when incarcerated and a provision barring the detention of children under the age of 12 in jail at all. De-emphasized due process because it's easier for the state to get involved.
Is the Due Process important for juvenile justice system? Discuss advantages/disadvantages.
Due Process is important for the juvenile justuce system because it is stated in the Constitution under the 14th amdenment that no State shall deprive any person of life,liberty,or property,without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of laws. It is only fair that juveniles are given the due process laws. A possible disadvantage to the due process laws being allowed in the juvenile justice system would be a barely there differentiation between a juvenile proceeding and a criminal prosecution.
Reading 2: The Child Saving Movement and the Origins of the Juvenile System. What is Platt's view on the motivation of the child saving movement?
Platt believed there was a middle class desire to control the dangerous and perishing classes. A push from middle-class professionals working in the area to improve their status. The desire of middle class women to widen their sphere of influence.
Reading 3:The Juvenile Court Law in Cook County,Illinois, 1899. Why does the author belive probation officers are especially important in the juvenile justice system? And what are their duties?
Tuthill believes that probation officers are the keystone of the court. They enable the court to maintain the children who may be paroled. It is their duty to make investigations, represent the child at at court, make regular reports of the child's behavior etc.
What rights were extended as a result of the Gault case?
Juveniles were entitled to due process uner the 14th amendment. 1.) Notice of the charges with regard to their timeliness and specificity.2.) Right to council.3.) Right to confrontation/cross examination. 4.) priviledge against self-incrimination. 5.) Right to a transcript of the trial record.6.) Right to appellate review. All except the right to protection against illegal search and seizure.
Bortner and Williams Preface Ch. 1 What proportion of juveniles in the Arizone juvenile justice system are incarcerated for violent offenses?
What were some specific strategies employed in Arizonato reform the system?
1.) Each youth has a right to individualize care and treatment in the "least restrictive way."2.) Diagnostic evaluation of when a youth first enters prison was to include a determination of what level of programming and confinement each youth requires.3.) Made a commitment to decrease the prison population.
What are total institutions?
A person is encouraged to view themselves as a unique individual who has control over their own destiny. Is taught how to solve problems and make good decisions.Is given a treatment plan designed to meet their needs.
How did Johnson v. Upchurch impact the Arizona juvenile justice system?
Lawsuit described youths were subject to cruel,harsh conditions, unrehabilitative environment. Documented youth's conditions of confinement and dimensions of the units. Youths were confined for 24 hrs a day, and occasional youths were denied permission to use the bathrooms. Insufficient precautions in the event of a fire. No special training was provided for security officers.No medical care and lack of education programs. Lawsuit asked federal gov to order people in charge to stop this behavior and to start fulfilling their responsibilites to youths. 7 yrs later, a consent decree was negotiated and agreed to extensive and specific changes in its juvenile institutions.
What are dominant characteristics of the model program introduced in Arizona?
Stated that it intended to respect and validate the personhood of those involved. Build a sense of community and develop an environment of mutual support. Sought to give youths a greater sense of control over their lives.Link youths to the community. Youths time was spent in intensive group sessions, individual counseling, recreation, free time, responsibility time(chores), group discussions.
What problems were found at CJTS? Criminal Justice Training Schools
1.) Inadequate resources/staffing 2.)Lack of oversight 3.)Failure to meet mental health needs 4.)Routine use of physical/mechanical restraints. 5.)Deficient record keeping.
Ch.21-Juvenile Court and Corrections: What do the Juvenile Court and Juvenile Correctional Agencies do to Control Delinquency? How and Why have the goals of the juvenile justice system changed over time?
Rehabilitation is still an important goal of the court, but juvenile courts have also come to place an increased emphasis on holding juveniles accountable for their offenses and punishing them. Started to place a more direct control for serious offenders. 1.) Series of studies raised doubt about society's ability to rehabilitate delinquents.2.)Rapid increase in delinquency rates(1960's-1970's).3.) Politicians began to attack rehabilitation and prevention programs. Claimed that crime & serious delinquency were not caused by social problems(poverty) but were the result of bad choices by bad people.System was portrayed as "too lenient" so they wanted to "get tough" on crime.
What are the stages in the Juvenile Justice System?
1.)Referral to juvenile court 2.)Intake Officer screening-Gather info about case and decide what to do with juvenile. 3.)Informal Processing- informal probation for a brief time. 4.)Detention Hearing-Whether or not continue the case. 5.)Waiver-Sent to adult court. 6.)Adjudication-Equivalent to hearing. Delinquent v. NonDelinquent.
What dispositions are available to juvenile court judges?
1.)Regular probation-Supervision and treatment of the juvenile in the community by a probation officer. 2.)Intermediate Sanctions- Restitution(pay back the victim or community.) 3.)Scared-Straight Type Programs- (Tour of an adult prison) 4.)Intensive Supervision Programs- (House arrest.) 5.)Day Treatment Centers- (After school facilities) 6.)Boot Camp
What are conditions like in juvenile correctional facilities? Are adequate treatment programs typically provided?
Conditions differ among facilities. Some are small housing while other house several hundred juveniles. Some provide a moderate amount of freedom while others are like adult prisons with no freedom at all. Some institutions place more emphasis on treatment while others more towards control/punishment. Some are well run some are over crowded.
What evidence exists concerning brain development that has implications for youthful offending?
Structurally the brain is still growing and maturing during adolescence and could stop around the age of 21. Studies have shown that the brain region that processes emotions indicate that teens are more prone to erratic behavior than adults. Teens are bad at looking into te future to see the results of actions.
Ch 22 Does the Juvenile Justice System Discriminate against certain groups in efforts to control delinquency? What are the most influential factors in determining how a juvenile is dealt with in juvenile justice system?
Almost all studies find that the most important determinants of how juveniles are treated in the justice systemare the seriousness of the offense and their prior record.
What evidence exists concerning discrimination in the juvenile justice system? How has this been responded to?
Over-representation is partly due to discrimination against African Americans.Believe they are more likely than white juveniles to be dangerous, disrespectful and engage in crime. Responded to by the gov requiring states to determine whether there is minority overrepresentation in their juvenile justice system and denying them for funds for delinquency programs unless steps are taken to address the issue. Sensitivity training for police and court employees.Clearer guidelines for decision making at each stage of the justice system.Increasing the proportion of court and police employees coming from racial minority groups.
CH 23. Is it possible to control delinquency by punishing more offenders and punishing them more severly? The strategies of deterrence and incapacitation. Distinguish between types of deterrence and incapacitation.
Deterrance is based on the fear of punishment.If society increases the certainty/severity of punishment, it increases the fear of punishment.Incapacitation is to increase the number of serious juvenile offenders sent to institutions and to increase the length of time they stay in there.
Deterrance/Incapacitation/Get Tough
Get Tough approaches have no effect or only a small effect on future offending and in certain cases, may actually increase future offending.(Intermediate Sanctions,sendiing juveniles to institutions,trying juveniles as adults.)
Reasons why punishing offenders may not deter them from committing delinquent acts.
1.) Juvenile justice system doesn't punish in an effective way.Not certain. 2.)Many juveniles are not very responsive to punishment.(I have nothing else to lose mentality) 3.)Punishments may backfire and increse the likelihood of more serious crime.(imprisonment made them into angry rebellious being)
How does a "restorative justice" approach differ from "get tough" efforts?
Restorative Justice argue that it is important to hold delinquents accountable for their offenses and to impose meaningful sanctions on them. Sanctions should not be excessive and shouldn't isolate offenders from society.Allow offenders to repair their harm. Attempts to sanction offenders in a way that does not increase the likelihood of further crime. The "get tough" approach have either no effect or very little effect upo future offending and in some cases may actually increase the likelihood of future offending.
Ch 2 Measurement What are the different method used to measure youth crime?
1.) "official" Statistics- from police, juvenile court and correctional agencies. 2.)"Self-report" Data-from juveniles, ith juveniles being asked about the offenses they committed. 3.)"Victimization" Data-People being asked if they have been the victim of various crimes.
What are the major strengths/weaknesses of each method?
Arrest Data-Weakness-Most delinquent acts don't become known to the police. Don't catch offenders in most cases.Don't arrest most of the suspected offenders they catch.Police data to the FBI is sometimes inaccurate(unfounding crime reports).Self-Report Data-Weakness-There are no long term nationwide self-report surveys.Serious offenses are more likely to be underreported.Measures of delinquency often focus on minor offenses and have vague response categories.Respondents often report trivial acts.Strength-provides an estimate of all delinquency committed by juveniles,regardless of whether or not it is known to the police.Victimization Data-Strength is that it provides info on both crimes that have come to the attention of the police and crimes that have not.Weakness-Onlu focus on a few violent and property crimes committed against people 12 and over.The victim can't see the offender so they can't estimate the offender's age.
UCR -8 Part I Offenses
1.)Murder 2.)Forcible Rape 3.)Aggravated Assault 4.)Robbery 5.)Burglary 6.)Larceny 7.)Arson 8.)Motor vehicle Theft
Ch 3 How much Delinquency is there? What are the offenses juveniles are most and least commonly arrested for?
Most:Part1-Larceny-Theft Least:Part1-murder Most:Part2-All other offenses Least:Part2-Embezzlement
Ch 4 Who is most likely to engage in delinquency? Are there patters of delinquency along the following lines? Social class? Race? Age? Gender?
Social Class-Arrest data tend to focus on more serious delinquency.Likelu that social class is moderately related to serious delinquency with lower class juveniles having higher average rates.Race-There is little or no relationship between race and minor delinquency. African Americans are more likely than whites to engage in serious delinquenc, espcially serious violence. Declined in recent yrs.Age-Crime rates are highest for people in mid to late adolescence.Gender-Males have higher rates of delinquency bc there are more male than female offenders and bc male offenders commit more offenses on acerage then female offenders.White males commit more offenses than females, females commit a broad range of offenses and they engage in acts like males but just not as much.There is some evidence that the gender diff in delinquency is becoming smaller.
Are there different types of juvenile offenders?
High-Rate,serious,chronic offenders-5% of juvenile population.More likely to be male, poor and African American. Low-Rate,minor,adolescen-limited offenders
Ch 5 What is a Theory and How do we test Theories? Why is it important to test theory?
1.) Define independent and dependent variable. 2.)Decide how to gather data to test your belief or Theory(Surveys,experiments) 3.)Develop measures of your independent and dependent variables(decide what questions will be asked) 4.)Select sample of juveniles to survey(random sample) 5.)Analyze the collected data(Association,Positive Assoc,Negative Assoc,Assoc not due to chance, assoc not due to third variables.
What is a dependent variable?What is an independent variable?What is a conditioning variable?
Dependent Variable-What is caused by the independent variable. Independent variable-What causes the dependent variable. Conditioning variable-
Ch 6 Strain Theory:Does Strain or Stress cause Delinquency? What does Rober Merton say about "strain" and youth crime?
1.Theories don't cause behaviors,they are explanation.2. Explains criminal behavior by examining economic structure of society.3.It's all about money!4.We dont vaule the process of achieving our goals, it's allabout rewards.Doesn't matter how you get there.Adapt in 5 Ways: Conformity(accept both goals and the ways to achieve them)Innovation(Don't have access to legitimate means, so create alternate way: Dealing drugs to get money)Ritualism(Realize they wont ever achieve success but go along)Retreatism(Drop out of society)Rebellion(reject and make their own system:gangs,militias.
How does Agnew expand upon Merton's ideas?
Believes strain creates anger/frustration.1.Failure to achieve positively valued goals.2.Strain as the removal of postively valueds things(Loss of parent)3.Strain as the presentation of neg things(parents fighting or dont love child)
Ch 7 Social Learning Theory: Do individuals learn to be delinquent from others? What factors are most important in learning delinquency?
Whether juveniles learn to conform or engage in delinquency depends on primarily on the nature of the people they associate with.1.Differentially reinforce their delinquent behavior.2.Teach them beliefs favorable to delinquency.3.Provide delinquent models for them to imitate.
What are the major types of control?
Direct control:Someone watching over the juvenile and sanctioning them for deviance.(setting rules,monitoring behavior,sanctioning for violations.) Stake in conformity:Things juvenile might lose by engaging in delinquency. Internal control:efforts to restrain himself from delinquency.(self control)
Statutory Waiver? Prosectutorial Waiver? Judicial Waiver?
Statutory:If serious crime is committed, will be tried as adult. Prosecutorial:Prosecutor's decision Judicial:Judged is required to make a hearing and decision.