Chapter 9 Motivation

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Chapter 9 Test

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
the body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state
an aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need
a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminated or reduce the deprivation
gives behavior, thoughts, and feelings a purpose and makes behavior energized, directed, and sustained
What is the cognitive approach to motivation?
Humans are rational and aware of their motivation
intrinsic motivation
a motivation based on internal factors, such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge and effort
extrinsic motivation
a motivation that involves external incentives, such as rewards and punishments
Yerkses Dodson
The law that states that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal
basal metabolisim rate
The minimum amount of energy used by an individual in a resting state
attribution theory
people are motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior in order to understand behavior
the brain structure involved in negative emotions
3 chemicals involved in hunger
1) glucose-blood sugar 2) insulin-hormone, causes excess to be stored as fat 3) leptin-a protein involved in satiety
What is the lateral hypothalamus responsible for?
-stimulating eating -increased appetite
What is the ventromedial hypothalamus responsible for?
-reducing hunger -restricting appetite
What are 3 biological factors that contribute to obesity?
1)heredity 2)chemical substances (inbalance) 3)brain processes (cognition, decisions)
Name 4 cognitive and social factors that contribute to obesity
1)time 2)place 3)environment 4)opportunity/encouragement
What are the 4 phases that make up the human sexual response pattern?
1)excitement phase 2)plateau 3)orgasm 4)resolution
Who was responsible for the Human Sexual Response Pattern?
Masters and Johnson
What are sexual scripts?
stereotyped patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually
Psychosexual dysfunctions
disorders that involve impairments in the sexual response pattern, either in the desire for gratification or in the ability to acheive it
Who was responsible for the Sex in America survey?
Robert Michael
What is Zillbergeld known for?
He is a sexuality expert known for debunking sexual myths
What are 4 influential factors involved in sexual orientation?
1)genetic 2)hormonal 3)cognitive 4)environmental
What is the need for achievement?
the desire to accomplish something, to reach a standard of excellence, and to expend effort to excel
What is the Attribution Theory?
It states that individuals are motivated to discover the causes of behavior in an effort to make sense of it
What is McClelland known for?
achievement studies
Define emotion
feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal, conscious experience, and behavioral expression
What is the Autonomic Nervous System responsible for?
Taking messages to and from the body's internal organs, monitoring such processes such as breathing and digestion. Is divided into 2 other systems, the sympathetic and parasympathetic
What is the SNS responsible for?
Involved in the body's arousal
What is the PNS responsible for?
calming the body from the affects of the SNS
What side of your brain is responsible for positive (happy) emotions? Negative?
left-happy right-sad, disgust
What is the 2 factor theory of emotion and who is responsible for it?
States that emotion is determined by physiological arousal and cognitive labeling; developed by Stanley and Singer
Who developed the facial feedback hypothesis and what does it state?
Ekman developed the idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them
Display Rules
sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed