Psych 101 - Mid - Term Review List:

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Thordike was known for his work with? Puzzle Boxes
The tendancy to perceive and approach problems in the same ways that have worked in the past is called... Mental Set
The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is? Operant Conditioning
Short term memory is probably coded? Verbally
What would you predict about Little Albert based on the principle of spontaneous recovery? Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.*In Spontaneous recovery the conditioned response can briefly reappear when the original CS returns, although the response is usually weak and short-lived.
When newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information, this is called? Retroactive Interference.
Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be? Reliable.
Researchers have found what about insight? That humans and apes are capable of insight.
What are example's of a primary reinforcer? Anything relating to food, drink, shelter, touch, and other biologically based needs. 
What are example's of a secondary reinforcer? Money, gold stars, pat on the back, awards, etc.
PET scans have demonstrated that when you are creating a visual image... the areas associated with stored knowledge send information to the visual cortex.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences divides intelligence into how many independent abilities? Nine independent abilities.
Encoding specificity refers to? Using physical surroundings or emotions as retrieval cues for specific memories.
According to Craik and Lockhart, we are most likely to remember information that we process at what level? Deeper level.*According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction is called? Spontaneous recovery.
Neurofeedback  Involves monitoring brain waves. *Has been used to treat many condition's.
For which famous memory researcher is memory a problem-solving activity in which the problem is to give a coherent account of some past event, and the memory is the solution to that problem? Bartlett.
Al must build 25 radios before he receives $20. What schedule od reinforcement is being used? A fixed-ratio schedule.*A fixed-ratio schedule demands a set number of responses, in this case 25.
Culture-fair tests attempt to measure? The intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised.
The divergent thinking technique of writing down everything that comes to mind about a topic without revising or proofreading until all of the information is recorded and then organizing it later is known as? Freewriting.
Which component of the nervous system mobilizes the body in times of stress? The Sympathetic Nervous System.
What does the Social-Cognitive view suggest? It suggests we play a role. 
You are at a basketball game and it is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. What were the fans? Bias.
GABA functions as? An inhibitory neorotransmitter in the brain.
What instantly assesses anger or threat? The amygdala is responsible for fear responses and memory of fear. 
What part of the nervous system restores the body to normal functioning after arousal?  The parasympathetic nervous system.
Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, sleeping, and temperature control are all strongly influenced by? The hypothalamus. 
Mental activities that differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness are known as? Altered states of consciousness.
Jane Goodall's research with chimpanzees and gorillas can best be described as? Naturalistic observation. 
The autonomic nervous system has two divisions called? Sympathetic and Parasympathetic.
What does the psychodynamic approach emphasize? Unconscious dynamics. 
The part of the occipital lobe that is responsible for receiving visual information from the eyes is called? The primary visual cortex.
Which part of the neuron is attached to the soma and carries messages out to other cells? The axon.
If you step on a piece of glass, what is responsible for sending a message to the muscles in your foot, resulting in pulling your foot away from the piece of glass? The motor neurons.
What are two roles of glial cells? Acting as insulation and providing structure to surrounding neurons.
A correlation is a numerical measure of the? Strength of the relationship between two variables.
Short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity that appear during stage 2 sleep are called? Sleep spindles.
Perceiving the question is the first step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Describing*The question comes from observing a situation and asking "What is happening?" This is a description.
Which neurotransmitter is associated with sleep, mood, and appetite? Serotonin.
The long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes is called the? Spinal cord.
John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of? Behavior. * He thought that was the most scientific.
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