Sociology Exam

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What is the scientific study of social behavior and human groups? Sociology
Sociology focuses on how ____ are established and changed? Societies
Who is associated with the sociological imagination? C. Wright Mills
What is sociological imagination? The awareness of the relationship between an individual and the whole society
Why is the sociological imagination an empowering tool? It allows us to go beyond personal experience to understand broader public issues
The body of knowledge obtained by methods based upon systematic observation is called what? Science
Why is sociology considered a science? Sociologists engage in organized, systematic studies of phenomena in order to enhance understanding
Astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology and physics study various aspects of the physical features of nature and are therefore considered... Natural sciences
Which social science would be interested in studying the economic impact of Hurricane
Katrina in the U.S. and throughout the world?

Which social science emphasizes the influence that society has on people’s attitudes and behavior and the ways in which people shape society? Sociology
What is a construct, made up model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated? Ideal type
What is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior. An effective theory may have both explanatory and predictive power?
Sociological theory
What did Emile Durkheim's study of suicide relate suicide rates to? Group life, lack of cohesiveness of religious, social and occupational groups
According to Emile Durkheim's study, ________ has a higher suicide rate that Catholics Protestants
Who coined the term "sociology"? Auguste Comte
Who translated the works of Auguste Comte into English? Harriet Martineau
Which early sociologist applied the concept of evolution to societies in order to explain how they change, or evolve, over time?

Herbert Spencer
The word that Max Weber used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account the subjective meanings people attach to their actions was Verstehen, greek for "understanding" "insight"
An instructor in a sociology class asks the students to make lists of the characteristics of the best and worst possible instructors. These lists, which would be used to evaluate all
instructors, are an example of
In Karl Marx’s analysis, society was fundamentally divided between Classes that clash in pursuit of their own class interests
Which aspect(s) of the social system did Karl Marx believe enabled the owners of the means of production to exploit the industrial workers? Economic, social, political
Intimate face to face interactions was a central part of sociologist____________ sociological theory. Charles Horton Cooley
Early female sociologists such as Jane Addams often were active in poor urban areas as leaders of community centers known as Settlement houses
By the middle of the twentieth century, the focus of the discipline of sociology had shifted to Theorizing and gathering information
Robert K. Merton made an important contribution to the discipline by successfully combining Theory and research
Who's contributions to sociological theory include how capital included material goods and the accumulation of knowledge, prestige, culture, and formal schooling

Pierre Bourdieu
For Pierre Bourdieu, concepts such as knowledge, prestige, and culture are included in the broader concept of Capital
The ________ perspective views society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival and stability Functionalist
Sociologist __________ saw “society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which contributes to the maintenance of the system as a whole”. Talcott Parsons
The ________________ perspective suggests that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society’s stability, then it will not be passed on from one generation to the next.

What are open stated, conscious functions that involve intended, recognized consequences of an aspect of society?
Manifest function
A ________ is an intuition that is open stated, conscious function. For colleges, their role is certifying academic competence and excellence.

Manifest function
What perspective focuses on the relationships of everyday life and would tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization? Feminist perspective
What perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole?

Which sociologist is widely regarded as the founder of the interactionist perspective?

George Herbert Mead
The ___________perspective holds the view that people create their social worlds through interaction and manipulation of symbols?

What is a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem?

Scientific Method
If you were interested in studying the relationship between date and acquaintance rape victims and the characteristics of the rapist, the first step would be to:

Define the problem
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What is An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept?

operational definition
The phrase “women who receive welfare are less likely than other women to have babies,” is an example of

Casual logic
What is commonly the second step in the scientific method?

Reviewing the literature
A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is known as a: Hypothesis
What is a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions? Variable
In Sociological research, income, religion, race, gender, and marital status are examples of

Researchers call the variable that is hypothesized to cause or influence another variable ___________ Independent variable
Sociological studies have indicated that people who are married are less likely to commit
suicide than people who are divorced. In this example, marital status is
An independent variable
The race of a criminal offender is associated with the frequency with which capital
punishment is administered. In this example, capital punishment would be considered the:
Secondary variable
The relationship between a condition or a variable and a particular consequence, with one
event leading to the other, is known as
dependent variable
The relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other is known as Correlation
A selection from a population that is statistically representative of that population is referred
to as
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In what type of sample does each member of the entire population being studied have the same chance of being selected? Random sample
What is the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study? Validity
A research measure that provides consistent results is considered Reliability
A factor held constant to test the relative impact of the independent variable is known as a:

Control variable
If a researcher wants to know how adults in the United States feel about the laws governing abortion, he or she might attempt to use a respondent’s marital status as Research design
What is a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically? Research design
A study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire, that provides sociologists with information concerning how people think or act, is known as: Survey
A sociologist interviews 75 women between the ages of 20 and 40 in an American city, and 75 women in the same age grouping in a Canadian city to conduct a cross-cultural study of job discrimination against women. This study would be classified as Interview
Observation research is the most common form of _____________ research, which relies on what is seen in field or in naturalistic settings more than on statistical data.

When a researcher collects information about a group through direct involvement and inspection, this is known as:

A sociologist who attends meetings at all the schools and churches in his community over several years, and meets as many residents as he can for the purpose of exploring all facets of the community’s social life, and then compiles a detailed description of the community, is conducting Participant observation
_______________'s study of Italian street corner men used participant observation. William F. White
The initial challenge that William F. Whyte and other participant observers encounter is: Gaining acceptance
An artificially created situation that allows the researcher to manipulate variables is known as Experiment
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the independent variable is called the: Control group
Sociologists performing research often do not rely on the classic form of experiment because Their presence affects results
People may behave differently in artificial situations than they would in the “real world.” This poses a particular problem for researchers using: Experiments
A sociologist decides to study the interaction among college students in the college’s computer center. When the students realize they are under observation, they become shy and reserved in their interactions. This is an example of: Hawthorne Effect
Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use: Previously collected and public data
Emile Durkheim conducted an examination of suicide using ____________ analysis. Secondary
A researcher studies adolescent attitudes about senior citizens by analyzing the lyrics of popular music and the depiction of the elderly in teen magazines. This is an example of: Content analysis
Using sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations is referred to as:

Applied sociology