Social Psychology- Chapter 3: Part 2

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Reconstructive v. Basic Memory -Basic memory: concrete and objective (i.e. last movie we watched
-Reconstructive memory: process of cognitively rebuilding the past based on cues and estimates in the present
Reconstructive Memory -always subject to distortion
-negative impace on eyewitness testimony and false convictions
Research on Memory -10-90% misidentification
-ingroup v. outgroup effect (racial description)
-Confidence does not correlate to accuracy
-speed is better indicator of accuracy
Reducing Eye Witness Error -Type of line-up can challenge the witnesses validity and ability to identify
Simultaneous Line-up -5-6 potential suspects (traditional style seen on tv)
-Suspect is available in line up
-Eye witness chooses one that looks MOST like suspect
Sequential Line-up -Judges one person at a time
-Reduces error
-Preferred by Social Psychologists
Blank Line-up -Suspect is not in line-up
-Performed to judge validity of eye-witness
Heuristics -Use of cognitive shortcuts to come up with intuitive answers (i.e. grading papers: longer must be better work)
-Makes cognitive decisions more efficient
Pros & Cons of Heuristics -faster, efficient, less effort placed
-Can be incorrect in some situations
Availability Heuristic -Making juudgments based on examples easily accessible (i.e. assertiveness v. self-report)
Representativeness Heuristic -Tendency to caregorize things based on how similar the object is to typical features of the category (i.e. plane= birdie to toddler)
-Assimilation according to Piaget
-Example of tall man, rich as athlete or lawyer
Illusory Correlation -perception of a relationship that does not exist or perception of a stronger relationship than is actually there (i.e. superstitions)
-Can relate to stereotypes (i.e. New Yorkers are rude)
-We overestimate what we want to see, look for specific examples of support leads to more examples
Hindsight Bias -Overestimation of people to claim they knew the result before it being announced after it has already occured (i.e. election results)
Effects of Hindsight Bias -self-critism (I should have known better)
Self-Serving Judgments -Perception of Others: more positive light when necessary (i.e. dating video study)
-Stereotypes: ability to use information selectivly in cases (i.e. gender studies in management: effect of stereotypes concerned with self-esteem)
Counterfactual Thinking -Reflections on how past situations could have turned out differently
2 types of counterfacual thinking -Upward: reflection on how things could have turned out better (i.e. If I had studied harder I would have gotten an A), useful for improving oneself
-Downward: Imagining how things could have been worse (i.e. didn't get promotion but at least I have a job), improve mood/ feel better about self, deliberate v. spontaneous (see person trip on campus)
Olympic Medal Winners -Silver = could have done better (upward) if I had ___ I would have gotten gold
-Bronze= could have done worse (downward) thank goodness I am on the podium.