Science Final Exam Chapter 22

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Which of the following is not made from organic molecules? a. calcium b. protein c. vitamin d. lipid e. DNA a
What was important about the synthesis of urea? a. Scientists discovered a better source of organic fertilizer. b. Complications in pregnancy were mitigated. c. The discovery led to the isolation of cyanide as a poison. d. Urea was the first organic molecule to be synthesized in a laboratory. e. The synthesis led to an understanding of hydrogen bonding. d
Which is not a function of proteins in living systems? a. provide structure to the cellulose tissue b. act as enzymes in cellular chemical reactions c. make many of the physical parts of the body d. regulate the movement of materials into cells e. a and d a
How many essential amino acids are there? a. twenty b. twelve c. eight d. thirty e. twenty-two c
Which of the following would you not find in all proteins? a. carbon and calcium b. an amino group c. a carboxyl group d. water e. a peptide bond a
Which is not an example of a polysaccharide? a. starch b. wood c. potatoes d. C6H12O6 e. celery d
Which is not an example of a lipid? a. candle wax b. hair c. petroleum jelly d. cell membrane e. butter b
Nutritional minerals do not include a. calcium. b. nitrogen. c. magnesium. d. potassium. e. zinc. b
Which are fat-soluble? a. Vitamin A b. Vitamin B c. Vitamin C d. Vitamin D e. a and d e
An organic molecule's chemical function is controlled by a. molecule shape. b. molecule size. c. molecule age. d. a, b and c e. none of the above a
The most complex shape of a protein is the a. primary. b. quaternary. c. tertiary. d. secondary. e. triadic. b
Sugar is to carbohydrate as amino acid is to a a. nucleic acid. b. protein. c. lipid. d. fructose e. vitamin. b
Which is true for all the organic molecules? a. modular in structure b. formed from few elements c. carbon-based d. controlled by geometry e. all of the above e
The tertiary structure of proteins is a. a unique sequence of amino acids for each protein. b. another name for the initial shape of the molecule. c. what determines the color change in cooked egg white. d. a twisting, curving, turning, folding and kinking of the protein molecule. e. the joining of two or more long protein chains. d
Which of the following is a protein molecule that facilitates chemical reactions between two other molecules? a. amino acid b. enzyme c. hydrogen bond d. lipid e. vitamin b
Some amino acids are called "essential" because they a. are synthesized by the body. b. can be stored by the body. c. are found in most of the foods we eat. d. should be taken into the body with every meal. e. are high-quality proteins.
One difference between carbohydrates and proteins is a. the carbohydrate molecule lacks nitrogen. b. the protein molecule contains more stored energy. c. the carbohydrate molecule is in butter. d. only the protein molecule contains iron. e. only the carbohydrate molecule can form long chains. a
Designer drugs a. are illegal. b. were created to decrease the calories in foods. c. include aspirin. d. can control hypertension. e. Two of the above are true. d
If a fat is saturated, a. all the possible bonding sites of the hydrogen and carbon atoms are filled. b. the oxygen atoms in the lipid chain are bonded. c. a kink develops between the adjacent carbon atoms. d. it cannot become a component of cholesterol. e. hydrogenation must be used to give the fat a better texture. a
The human body is mostly hydrogen. TRUE
Lipids link together to form carbohydrates.
Starch is an example of a polysaccharide. TRUE
Phospholipids can both repel and attract water.
All organic molecules are based on carbon.
Sugar molecules are the building blocks of cell membranes.
The cell membrane is made from amino acids. FALSE
Amino acids form the backbone of cellulose and hair. FALSE
Starch and cellulose are examples of polysaccharides TRUE
Olestra, the first commercial "no fat fat," works because it is a more complex molecule than regular fat and cannot be digested.
The Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) lists published by the National Academy of Sciences is based on the best research and judgment of the scientific community about nutritional needs. TRUE
What do hamburger, corn, pollen, and eyelashes have in common? a. They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms. b. They all are composed of a modular molecular structure. c. They all are a result of a unique combination of molecule shapes. d. The dominant element in each item is carbon. e. All of the above are true. E
Which food combination supplies all essential amino acids? a. peanut butter and jelly b. tofu and rice c. beans and corn tortillas d. a and b e. all of the above E
Every distinct protein differs from other proteins in which of the following ways? a. sequence of the amino acids b. shape and folding characteristics c. the primary structure d. how the protein connects to other proteins e. all of the above
The difference between high-quality proteins and low quality proteins is that a. high-quality proteins are more expensive than low-quality proteins. b. compared to high-quality proteins, low-quality proteins are lower in iron. c. whenever you consume high-quality proteins, you get amino acids in roughly the same proportion as your body proteins. d. low-quality proteins are less stable. e. high-quality proteins are higher in calories. C
Why can cows digest grass and humans cannot? a. The human stomach contains a peptide that binds grass into an indigestible mass. b. Grass contains a lipid that is poisonous to humans. c. Cows have an enzyme that separates the glucose molecule from the cellulose polymer in grass. d. Cows have several stomachs in their digestive system. e. Humans can digest grass but choose not to grow it for food.
The polymer chain of protein is broken down by heat when it is cooked, which makes the protein more digestible.
The opaque white of cooked egg albumen is an example of broken hydrogen bonds in the protein. TRUE
If you have a high cholesterol problem, you should choose foods that are labeled "partially hydrogenated." FALSE
The main problem with excess cholesterol is that it clogs the arteries of some people.
How does aspirin work on pain in the body? a. blocks action of an enzyme b. decreases the production of prostaglandin c. interrupts the transmission of nerve signals d. all of the above e. none of the above d