Quiz & Exam 3 Ch 23 &24

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Gall Bladder Stores bile until needed
Hepatic Portal system Carreis nutrient-rich blood from the GI tract to the liver
Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonate that are secreted into the duodenum
Mesentery Suspends digestive organs from teh abdominal wall and provides access route for blood vessels and nerves
Partod gland Excretes saliva into the oral cavity
Periodontal ligament Secures teeth to the maxilla or mandible
Pyloric valve Controls the release of chyme into the duodenum
Rectum Compacts and stores feces until defecation
Digestive enzymes do not harm the cells and tissues in which they are produced because... They are produced as zymogens and they are not active until they reach the lumen of the GI tract
Which macromolecules are digested by enzymes found in gastric juice? proteins
Which cells produce the HCl that makes the lumen of the stomach so acidic? Parietal cells
List two things that stimulate gastric secretion. Eating, and the parasympathetic nervous system.
List two things that inhibit gastric secretion. The sympathetic nervous system, enterogastric reflex, CCK, secretin, protein in duodenum.
How can a person live on a diet that is totally devoid of glucose? Hepatocytes (liver cells) can convert fats, amino acids, other sugars, to glucose to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
Why is the liver red in color? Iron is stored in the liver.
What are essential nutrients? Nutrients that must be obtained from foods because they are not made in our bodies.
________ occurs when excess glucose is taken up by hepatocytes or muscle fibers and stored in carbohydrate form. Glycogenesis.
Vitamin A An essential component of photoreceptor pigments
Vitamin D Essential for absorption of Ca++ in intestines and immune function.
Vitamin K Synthesis of clotting factors depends on thsi enzyme cofactor
Vitamin E An anti-oxidant that reduces damage in cells form reactive form of oxygen
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) Essential for carbohydrate metabolism and the oxidation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA
Vitamin B3 (niacin) Component of the electron carrier, NAD+
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) Important for heme synthesis, steroid hormone synthesis, and formatino fo acetyl-CoA from fatty acids.
Folic acid Coenzyme important in amino acid synthesis, DNA synthesis, and neural tube formation during development.
_________ provide routes for entry for nerves and blood vessels and suspend the GI tract organs within the peritoneal cavity. Mesenteries
In which GI tract organ(s) does mechanical digestion occur? oral cavity, stomach, and small intestine.
A person experiences heartburn when chyme is extruded through the ____________. cardiac sphincter.
What products of the compelte digestion of protein are absorbed by intestinal epithelia? Amino acids.
Choosing foods of varying color is an easy way to ensure that there are multiple vitamins in your diet. Why do we need to eat foods containing vitamins? Our bodies cannot make vitamins, so we must obtain them from foods.
What occurs during gluconeogenesis? Glucose is synthesized form non-carbohydrate precursors, like fatty acids or amino acids.
When does lipogenesis occur? When cells have an abundance of ATP and glucose.
During which time of the year is your metabolic rate likely to be highest, requiring you to consume more calories? Winter, (BMR is faster, higher, in cold weather)
Which part of the nephron is responsible for producing relatively dilute or concentrated urine? collecting duct.
What is the function of the granular cells at the juxtaglomerular apparatus? They contract or relax to regulate glomerular filtration rate, and they secrete renin, which then triggers various mechanissm to increase sodium and water reabsorption, therby increasing blood volume.
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on teh permeability properties of the ___________ Loop of Henle
In which order does urine pass through these structures? : urethra, urinary bladder, ureter, renal pelvis. Renal pelvis - ureter - urinary bladder - urethra
How does ADH affect urine formation? ADH stimulates formation of more concentrated urine.
The filtrate in the Bowman's capsule is much like plasma except that filtrate does not contain ____ proteins.
Most desirable molecules are reabsorbed from filtrate by __________. symport, in which Na+ moving along its concentration gradient powers transport of other solutes.
What is deglutition? swallowing
What lifts to block the nasopharynx during swallowing? the uvula
What covers the glottis, or larynx to prevent the boluls from entering as it passes into the esophagus? the epiglottis
Where are bile salts produced? liver
Where are bile salts stored? gall bladder
Where are bile salts secreted into? duodenum
What do bile salts aid in the digestion of? lipids (fats)
What type of cells produce pepsinogen? chief cells
What activates chief cells? acid (HCl)
What do chief cells do? digests proteins in the stomach.
What produces the hormone secretin? duodenal glands
What causes the duodenal glands to produce secretin? When chyme enters the duodenum.
Amino acids nutrient used for energy (ATP production) and building proteins.
Calcium (Ca++) Essential component of bone matrix and intracellular second messenger of muscle and other cells.
Cholesterol Structural component of cell membranes, steroid hormones, and bile salts.
Copper (Cu++) Cofactor in enzyems of electron transport chain and others catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions.
Glucose Nutrient used for energy (ATP production) by all cells of the body.
phosphate (PO43-) essential for energy (ATP production) and regulation of protein structure and function.
Potassium (K+) Used in maintaining osmotic balance and establishing membrane potential for electrical signaling.
Vitamin B3 (niacin) electron carrier of cellular respiration and cofactor of enzymes catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions
Vitamin C Antioxidant that is also required for connective tissue formation.
Vitamin K needed for production of blood clotting factors
VLDLs in lipid transport: transport fats made to adipose tissues for storage.
LDLs in lipid transport: transport cholesterol to tissues
HDLs in lipid transport: transport fats and cholesterol from tissues to lvier for use.
List the three steps of urine formation and briefly describe what happens in each step. Filtration, Reabsorption and secretion