Psych Section 2 Exam 2

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Learning (def, how many kinds, types)
learning involes ome experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner
-over 40 kinds
-conscious and deliberate, or unconscious
habituation general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding
learning and behaviorism it can be observed and demonstrated, goes along with behaviorist psychology
classical conditioning definition occurs when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired witht a stimulus that naturally evokes a response.
4 basic elements of classical conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
conditioned stimulus
conditioned response
US (Pavlov dog part) unconditioned stimulus: something that will reliably produce a naturally occuring reaction (food in front of a dog)
UR (Pavlov part) unconditioned response: reflexive action that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (dog's drooling because of food)
CS (Pavlov part) conditioned stimulus: stimulus that is initially neutral, and produces no reliable response but is paired with US (bell, tone presented with food)
CR conditioned response: reaction that resembles the UR but is produced by only a CS (dogs drooling when they hear the bell only)
acquisition phase when US and CS are paired together
second order conditioning conditioning when the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure (black sqaure paired with tone caused dogs to salivate even though it was never directly associated with food)
extinction (CC) gradual elimination of learned response that occurs when the US is no longer present
spontaneous recovery (CC) tendency of extinct behavior to recover from extinction after rest period
how is relearning CS after spontaneous recovery? conditioning to CS is much more rapid than the first time
generalization (CC) CR is observed even when CS is slightly different than original CS used during acquisition (cats and opening of drawers, different tone.....)
discrimination (CC) the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli (cat no longer runs in when ever drawer is opened) when it doesnt lead to the US that is paired normally with real CS
Little Albert
-Watson and Rayners experiment on 7 month old baby to condition emotional responses to stimuli
-shows that complex emotions can be conditioned
-environment more important than genetics
what brain structure is involved in CC? amyglada
what suggests cognitive elements of CC? (study of...)
-dogs didn't salivate at sight of pavlov because they knew he was not a reliable indicator
-Rescorla and Wagner: CC only occurs when animal learns to set up expectations
Rescorla and Wagner's study suggests
cognition in CC
CC only occurs when animal learns to set up expectations
is CC easier if the CS is...
*Resclora and Wagner
higher order conditioning (CC)
original CS is spoon
then the spoon drawer triggers response....
US -> UR
explanations of how classical conditioning works
-stimulus substitution
-information theory
stimulus substituion (CC) +example
-instead of hearing bell we see food
-if this is taking place, we should always have the exact same response (Henriques example of flinching when shocked with bell but freezing when just bell is heard.)
information theory (CC) CS is providing information abuot the US
biological mechanisms (CC)
if cerebellum is damaged (CC)..... CR will be destroyed but not UR
order from best to worst of timing of CC
1. delayed conditioning
2. traced conditioning
3&4: backward conditioning, and simultaneous conditioning
delayed conditioning CS is presented up until the US is shown
traced conditioning CS is presented, pause, then US is shown
simultaneous conditioning CS and US are shown together
backwards conditioning US is shown before the CS
food aversions (CC) adaptive processcan occur with hours in betweenextinction is highly unlikelyGarciaException to CC rules
evolutionary elements of CC -food aversions-preferred foods-biological preparedness
operant conditioning a type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine if it will be repeated in the future.
The law of effect (OC +who....) Thorndike: puzzle box with catslaw of effect: behaviors that are followed by a satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and vice versa.
Who is associated with reinforcement B.F. skinner
reinforcer any stimulus that increases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
punisher any stimulus that decreases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
positive reinforcement something desirable is presented (something is added.... and its a reinforcer)
negative reinforcement: something undesirable is taken away (something is taken away, and the taking away of it is reinforcing)
positive punishment something undesirable is presented
negative punishment something desirable is taken away
types of reinforcers primary reinforcerssecondary reinforcers
seconday reinforcers conditioned/learned reinforcers that can be used to get primary reinforcers (through association classical conditioning) (money)
primary reinforcers food, comfort, shelter, biological needs...
premack principle neutrality of reinforcers-discerning which of two activities someone would rather engage in means that the preferred activity can be used to reinforce a non-preferred one.-meaning that the activities can be reinforcing or punishing depending on many factors, not the basic nature.
why punishment doesn't work may lead to behavior only being temporarily inhibited or hiddendoesn't teach a more acceptable alternativepunishment can be reinforcing (the kid that gets in trouble to get attention).
if punishment is going to be effective... it must be consistentevery time that the behavior isn't punished, it is essentially reinforced.
over-justification effect (+study) when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior(Lepper's study children who were given rewards to draw...)
shaping reinforce successive approximations of desired behavior
chaining reinforce last behavior in chain, add things until you get to the beginning of the desired sequence (always looking forward to the end)jimmy the sea lion
schedules of reinforcement fixed-ratio, fixed-interval, variable-interval, variable-ratiocrucial!
fixed interval (FI) reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that appropriate responses are madeeffect: little responding after reinforcement, then burst of responses right before interval is over (like students and studying)
variable-interval (VI) a behavior is reinforced based on an average time since last reinforcementproduces steadier responding because time of next reinforcement is unpredictable (pop-quizzes...)
fixed ratio (FR) reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made
variable-ratio (VR) delivery of reinforceent is based on a particular average number of responsesreal estate agents (they don't get rewarded every house they show, but they get rewarded for every house they sell)casino
VI and FI produce what kind of responding slow, methodical responding because it doesn't matter how many times they press it, just how often
FR and VR produce what kind of responding high consistent rates of responding because the number of responses is directly related to the number of rewards.VR produce slightly higher rates of responding than FRthe higher the ratio, the higher number of responses
intermittent reinforcement when only some of responses are followed by reinforcement
continuous reinforcement reinforcement after every response
intermittent-reinforcement effect (partial-reinforcement) the fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement.
superstitious behavior (OC) reenacting behaviors that had accidentally been reinforced.
neural elements of operant conditioning James Olds and electrodes in rats brain and allowed rats to control electric stimulation to different parts of the brainlimbic system=intensely pleasurablemedial forebrain bundle: pathway through midbrain, to hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens
Tolman suggests cognitionmeans to end relationship (stimulus does not directly evoke a response, but establishes an internal cognitive state, which then produces the behavior.rats and maze: their pace through the maze depended on how they thought they would be rewarded at the end.
latent learning Tolman: something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the futurecognitive map
cognitive map mental representation of the physical features of the environmentwhen maze was made more complex for rats, they still followed the right directioncognition
cognitive elements of OC tolman, means-end relationship, latent learning, cognitive map
evolutionary elements of OC rat going the wrong way the second time through the maze--knew that the food wouldn't be there the second time around.
Observational learning Banduralearning takes place by watching others
Bandura's study children and bobo dolls and adult model and how their behavior was alike
neural component of observational learning mirror neurons
mirror neurons fire when the animal is doing actionfire when the animal is watching the actions
components of observattional behavior attentionretentionreproductionmotivation
3 functions of memory encodingstorageretrieval
encoding the process by which we transform what we perceive think or feel into an enduring memory
storage the process of maintaing information in memory over time
retrieval the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.
3 types of encoding processes elaborative encodingvisual imagery encodingorganizational encoding
elaborative encoding actively relating new information to knowledge already in memoryfinding meaning of something
brain in elaborative encoding left temporal lobe and lower left front labe
visual imagery encoding stores new information by converting it to a mental pictureSimonides and recalling all the people by going around to each table and remembering
brain in visual imagery encoding occipital lobe
organizational encoding noticing the relationship among a series of items(waitress and how she groups things together into hot foods, cold food....)
brain in organizational encoding upper surface of left frontal lobe
memory storage process of maintaing information in memory over time
memory store's three main divisions sensoryshort-termlong-term
senosry memory store and two kinds place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or lessiconic and echoic
iconic memory fast decaying store if visual information
echoic memory fast decaying store of auditory information
short term memory store place where nonsensory inofrmation is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
how to get around limitation of time of short term memory store rehearsing
rehearsing process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
getting around limitation of quantity in short term memory chunking
chunking combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks
limitations of short term memory how much informationhow long it can hold information
working memory active maintenance of information in short term storage. contemplating next move in a chess game
long term memory store place in which information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or yearsno known capacity
brain in long term memory store hippocampus
hippocampus damage can cause 2 diseases anterograde amnesiaretrograde amnesia
anterograde amnesia the inability to transfer information from short term to long term
retrograde amnesia the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a certain date
best place to look for memories in the brain is between synpases
LTP and long term memory storage -many LTP pathways in hippocampus-induced rapidly-last for a long time
long term potentiation (LTP) enhanced neural processing that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections
NMDA influences the flow of information from one neuron to another across the synapse by controlling the initiation of LTP in most hippocampal pathways.
how NMDA works hippocampus has abundance of NMBA'd f NMDA receptors to become activated
how NMDA receptors become activated 1. presynaptic neuron releases glutamate which attached to NMDA receptor on postsynaptic neuron2. excitation takes place in post-synaptic neuron
retrieval cues "hints"external information tha tis associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind
encoding specificity principle retrieval cues can serve as reminder when it helps recreate the specific way it was encoded
state-dependent retrieval tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval-mood-under the influence-why its hard to look on the bright side when upset
transfer-appropriate processing memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when we process it in a way that is appropriate to the retrieval cues that will be available later-semantic judgements of word study-recall performance is best when the encoding and retrieval are both in same context/mood
When people retrieve information that was presented earlier (trying to recall) = what brain structure right frontal lobe
successfully remembering a past experience =what part of the brain hippocampal regionsensory areas that are part of an experience
explicit memory declarativeepisodic: memory of experiences
implicit nondeclarativememory of how to do thingsprocedural memory and priming
procedural memory gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practicepart of implicit memory
priming enhanced ability to think of a stiumlus suh as a word or object as a result of reent exposure to the stimulus(talk about a bike and then later are given this : b_ _ eguess the word is bike)part of implicit memory
brain structures in implicit and explicit memory explicit: hippocampusimplicit:not the hippocampus... cortex?
brain structures in implicit priming: less activity in the cortext (makes it easier for the brain)
semantic memory +structure network of associated facts that make up our general knowledge of the worldnot the hippocampus
episodic memory +structure collection of past personal experiences occurring at a certain time of placehippocampus
7 sins of memory misattribution, suggestibility, bias, absentmindedness, blocking, transience, persistence
memory transience
forgetting what occurs with the passage of tmie-ebbinghaus and list of nonsense syllables: most forgetting occurs right after event.... with increasingly less forgetting as time goes onforgetting does not happen at constant rateproactive and retoractive interference
proactive interference old learning affects memory acquired later using hebrew while trying to learn spanish
retroactive interference when new learning affects the old memories-learning of psych makes you forget philosophy
absentmindedness lapse in attention (memory does not encode)lower activity in frontal region
prospective memory remembering to do things in the future
blocking the inability to retrieve information despite the fact you are trying to left temporal lobemight not have the right retrieval cues
memory misattribution assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source-source monitoring-eye-witness problemsfalse recognition
George Sperling flash letters and ask people to remember themtone indicating which linesuggests that it is encoded it just doesn't stay there very long
George Miller 7 +/- 2 bits in short term memory
Baddely working memory model
working memory model (what phases) sensory>long term>working memory (central exec, articulatory/phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer)>long term
levels of processing theory of memory encoding poolsurface vs deep = how much we think about itCraik and Lockhart
Craik and Lockhart levels of processing theory of memorylist of words for people to memorize with different efforts elaboration: more people remembered
Parallel Distributed Processing Model when we learn a piece of information, it does not exist by itself, it is somehow related/connected to everything else we knowWe strengthen connections to help us retrieve information
explicit memories (declarative)episodicsemanticflashbulb
Suggestibility tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollectionssimilar to memory misattribution but misattribution is distortions without specific suggestionsloftus studiesconcerns about psycho therapy
bias distortiing influences of present knowledge, beliefs and feelings on recollection of previous experiencescurrent mood can bias.
3 kinds of memory bias egocentricconsistencychange
consistency bias current knowledge and beliefs have biasing effects, recontruct the past to fit into the belief.
change bias exaggeration of past and present
egocentric bias exaggerate change between past and present to make ourselves look goodremember how we want to remember it
persistence intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget, usually happens after disturbing or traumatic eventsmore vivid and enduring recollectionsflashbulb memoriesheightened emotion which watching events =better memory recall later
hormones and structure for memory persistence amygladaadrenaline and cortisol enhance memory
damage to the amyglada and memory damage to the amyglada will not impair normal memory function, but it will cause the mundane events to be remembered just as well as emotional ones.
recall vs recognition recall: name the 7 dwarfsrecognition: give list of names and pick out the 7 dwarfs
context dependent memory (who) Godden and Baddeleyplace/location serve as retrieval cues
gordon bower mood-dependent memory
cue-dependent theory dont have necessary cues for retrieval
schemas mental framework representing our knowledge and assumptions about the worldremember things that are consistent with schema and ignore others
Ceci study preschoolers and fake/real memoriescan't tell what is real and what is made up. -repression isn't possible?
Williams study police records of child abuseinterviewed about it and someone deniedevidence of repressed memories
hippocampus slow to mature (childhood amnesia)alcohol induced blackouts slow activity of hippocampus
frontal cortex connecting fact with context (personal experiences)
basal ganglia: procedural memory
cerebellum classical conditioning
out-group homogeneity (problem of what...) belief that people in another group besides your own are all the samecross-race identification
instances of dissociation of implicit and explicit memory false fame: familiarity prompts fameillusion of truth: prior exposure to a statement makes it true, even if it is falseeyewitness transferenceunintentional plagiarism (cryptomnesia)
distortions of memory in eyewitness testimony eyewitness transference (source monitoring)cross-race identification (outgroup homoegeneity)presence of a weapon
how can I help my memory? (4 ways) spaced versus mass practicerecitation vs rereadingorganizationrelearning
category specific deficit inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside of that category undisturbed
what does the fact that category specific deficit can occur right after birth suggest? that our brain is prewired to organize sensory and perceptual inputs into broad based categories
Damage to ___ causes...left hemisphere of cerebral cortextleft temporal lobelower left temporal lobetemporal lobe meets occipital and parietal category specific deficitrecognizing humans""animals""tools
Eleanor Rosch family resemblance theory
family resemblance theory features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every memberno defining feature
prototype  "best" or most typical memober of the categorypossesses most / all of characteristic featurescan change depending on context
typicality and family resemblance scores are... correlated
brain structures &prototypes visual cortexleft hemisphere
exemplar theory we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the categorypersonal experiences
brain structure & exemplar, +what brain activities basal ganglia and prefrontal cortexanalysis and decision making
rational choice theory we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two
humans excel at estimating ____ but not ___ frequency, probability
availability bias items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently
heuristics rule of thumb
algorithm well defined sequence of procedures that guarantee a solutioncomputer, geometric proofs
conjunction fallacy people think that two events are more likely to occur together than by themselves.
representative heuristic decision making based on prototype
prospect theory people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains
frequency format hypothesis our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they ar eto occurpresenting information in frequency format capitalizes our evolutionary strengths
ill-defined problem no clear goal and no clear solution path
well-defined problem one with clear goals and a clear way to solve it
means-end analysis (+who) Karl Dunckerprocess of searching for means/steps to reduce the differences between the current situation and described goal
steps of means-end analysis 1. analyze goal2. analyze current state3. list differences4. reduce differences by:a. direct means  (not intermediate steps)b. generating a subgoalc. finding a similar problem with a known solution
artificial concepts formal concepts that can be clearly defined by a set of rules (fruit)
natural concepts casual or fuzzy concepts that do not have a precise set of properties (automobiles)tend to be man made
how do we judge concepts? positive/negative instancessystematic/formal approachesprototypesexemplars
inductive reasons vs deductive reasons specific to generalgeneral to specific
functional fixedness the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problem
mental set we get into a mental rut in our approach to problem solving and continue the old and ineffective method
confirmation bias tendency to only look for what we believe in 
belief perseverance the tendency to hang on to a discredited belief
the problem with representative heuristic the tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category.
availability heuristic make judgments on frequencies based on available information
anchoring effects tendency to use one stimulus as an anchor or reference point in judging a second stimulus
escalation of commitment (definition + phases) +when we are not likely to escalate commitment definition: the tendency to become increasinly committed to a bad decision even if losses increasephases:initial phase: decision based on rational factors, just try againearly losses: reluctant to admit a mistake, desire to self-justificationcontinuing losses: external factors: social/political pressureswhen we are not likely: limited resources and when we can diffuse responsibility
overconfidene we don't like to think about being wronggambler's fallacy
gambler's fallacy the belief that you have lost so many times, you must win the next. just because it happens a certain amount of times in a row doesn't mean it will not happen again.
entity theory of intelligence intelligence is fixed
incremental theory of intelligence intelligence can cahnge
Francis Galton Intelligence composed of two things:capacity for labor (strength)sensitivity to physical stimuli (ability to distinguish)
lumpers vs splitters people who lump intelligence into one capacity vs people who split intelligence into many parts
Charles Spearman two factor theory
two factor theory General intelligence, underlies all mental abilitiesused factor analysisspecific intelligence
factor analysis correlation among a number of different variables and who different things relate to one another
Raymond Cattell 2 types of general intelligence:fluid intelligencecrystallized intellgience
fluid intelligence problem solving, reasoning, declines over timecattell
crystallized specific knowledge, increases over timecattell
Louis Thurstone multiple factor theory 
Thurstone found _ factors of human intelligence (+names) 7:verbal comprehensionnumber abilityword fluencyspatial visualizationassociative memoryreasoningperceptual speed
Why Thurstone revised the intelligence theory there were more similarities between certain groups of skills, even though all the scores were about the same 
Howard Gardner intelligence measured on standardized tests does not encompass the genius found in musicians, dancers, athletes....8 types of intelligence
Gardner's 8 types of intelligence and an example of each linguistic: preachers/politicianslogical/mathematical: engineersspatial: pilotsmusical: musicians, mozartbodily-kinestheticinterpersonal: knowing what motivates people, therapistsintrapersonal: knowing own feelings/motivationsnaturalistic: appreciate patterns in nature
Sternberg Triarchic Theory
Triarchic theory:  3 kinds of intelligence: componential/analyticexperiential/creativecontextual/practical
Binet Mental age
problems with mental age as measure of intelligence if a 4 yr old and a 6 yr old and an 8 yr old all have the mental age of 8, are they all equally intelligent? no
intelligence quotient ratio (+who) William Stern/Louis Termanmental age divided by chronological age multipled by 100
IQ ratio solved_____ but problems with _____ solved: the differentiation between mental ages and different chronological agesbut doesn't allow distinctions/comparison amongst adults because their intellectual abilities will level off
normal curve properties -one mode/median/mean
1 standard deviation on normal curve 15 points
_____% of population is 1 SD from average (points) and _______ % of population is 2 SD (points) 2/3 (60 percent ish) between 85-11595% between 70-130
David Weschler Weschler Intelligence Scales
Wechsler's test yield 3 scores: verbal(comprehension, vocab...)performance (object assembly...)overall score
validity the  extent to which a given tests assesses what is supposed to measure
construct validity that the components in test are assessing what they are supposed to be 
predictive validity the extent to which a given tests predicts the outcome.....?
reliability dependability or consistency of a measure to give consistent results
internal reliability all items/questions are refelcting the same thing
test/re-test reliability same scores now and later
interrater reliability consistent regardless of experimenter
standardization definition and aims ensures that the conditions for taking the same are the same for all test takersreflect the differences in individuals, not in conditions.
the heredity environment controversy to what extent is intelligence influenced by nature or by the environment (nurture)
Flynn Effect IQ scores world wide have increased over generations
Flynn effect explanations better nutritionmore complex tasks
Claude Steel  Stereotype Threat
stereotype threat bringing cultural sterotypes to one's awareness can affect performance
syllogistic reasonsing assessing whether a conclusion follows two statements we believe to be true
Binet: first to test children intelligencenatural intelligencetest would measure aptitude, not prior academic acheivement
measurement of IQ for childrens vs adults ratio IQ vs deviation IQ
deviation IQ divide test scores by average test score of people in same age group then multiply by 100
tests and 3 properties and how they are related responses, consequential actions, hypothetical propertymeasure of responses that are correlated with consequential behavior that are though to be correlated with hypothetical property
intelligence scores are good predictors for... number of years of schooling someone will receive
why do intelligence scores predict outcomes? (two kinds) 1. because they influence it (professional school requires testing)2. they have no influence over it (crime)
primary mental abilities (+who) Thurstoneperceptual ability, verbal ability, numerical abilityseparate/independent but stable
mathematical technique confirmatory factor analysis both spearman and thurstone were right3 level hierarchy:1. general factor (Spearman's g)2. group factors (Thurstone's primary mental abilities)3. Specific factor (Spearman's s)people have general ability of intelligence, made up of small set of independent sub-abilities which are made up of large set of specific abilities unique to certain tasks
how to determine middle level abilities top down approach bottom up approach
top down approach  start with broad survey of human abilities then looking to see which abilities intelligence tests measureSternberg3 kinds of intelligence creative, analytical, practicalHoward Gardner
bottom up approach start with responses on intelligence tests to see what independent clusters formJohn Carroll and 8 kinds of middle level abilities
Termans beliefs on intelligence and genetics 1. intelligence is product of his/her genes2 some racial groups score better than others on intelligence tests3. the groups that score best are genetically superior
heritability coefficient statistic that describes the proportion of the difference b between peoples scores that can be explained by their genetic makeup
what is the correlation between environment and the heritability coefficient and what does it mean? the more similar the environments the higher the coefficient because the differences in intelligence must be due to genes
shared environment vs nonshared environment environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a house hold (diet..) vs. those environmental factors that are not experienced by all members of a household (teachers)
the average difference between groups is ______ than differences within groups considerably less
does SES or ethnicity predict intelligence better SES
relative intelligence comparison in a groupstays stable over time
absolute intelligence varies over time
catecholamines biochemicals indicating the activation of emotional systems
Walter Cannon fight or flight
HPA axis hypothalamus> pituitary gland>adrenal gland
brain activation in response to threat
hypothalamus triggers the pituitary which releases adrenocorticoptropic (ACTH) which travels through the blood stream activating the adrenal glands which release cortisol and acetocholamines  (epinephrine and norepinepherine) which active the sympathetic nervous system which initiates an attack of escape
Hans Selye General Adaption Syndromenoticed that many different stressors produced same response
General Adaption Syndrome 1. alarm phase : body rapidly mobilizes resources to response to threat/fight or flight. Resistance is low2. Resistance: body adapts o high state of arousal, shuts down unnecesarry processes3 .exhaustion: resistence collapses and costs of stress finally calculate
Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman studies of Type A type B personalities
Bathrop first study to demonstrate decreased immune funcion in response to grief
Stone college students study to find the relation  between daily life events and antibody levels
Visintainer stress increases the rate of cancer spread
type a personality competitive, time aware, hostile, angryprone to cardiac health problems
type b laid  backnot prone to cardiac health problems
phony type-b type a with an exterior type b MOST prone to cardiac health problems
cognitive appraisal  primary: determining whether stress is something that is meaningfulsecondary: determining if it is a challenge or a threat, how will i deal with it to maximize the positive outcomes and minimize the negative
hippocampus and PTSD hippocampus volume determines sensitivity to PTSDsmaller volume in PTSD
Gilbertson  PTSD studies that suggest that reduced hippocampus (sensitivity to PTSD) is a preexisting condition
Burnout state of emotion, physical, and mental exhaustion created by long term involvement in emotionally demanding situations and accompanied by lowered performance and motivationmost common in helping professions and when people define themselves in their careers
repressive coping avoiding the stressorno or very few physical symptoms of stress
rational coping thinking about the stressor3 stepsacceptanceexposureunstanding
reframing finding new or creative ways to think about the stressor to reduce its threat
body  management relaxation, biofeedback, aerobic exercise
Hardiness 3 c'scontrolchallengecommitment
Joseph Brady control experiments and stressmonkey experimentsbeing in charge carries a big burdenbut he didn't use random selection
Weiss lack of control causes stressrats and shocks
Langer and Rodin nursing home studies and how control affects life length
coping strategy problem focused copingemotion focused coping
emotion focused coping focus on relaxing our feelingsgood when we have no control over the situation
problem focused coping solving the problems, ways to be successfulgood when we have control over the situation
psychosomatic illness interaction between mind and body that can produce illness
hypochondriasis psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that they signify a life-threatening illness
somatization disorder combinations of multiple physical complaints that have no medical explanation
conversion disorder apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary but the person experiences as involuntary
malingering fake medical/psychological behavior to get what they want
optimism stable over timerelatively hereditary 
when focus is on potential gains.. risk ______ aversa
when focux on potential losses...risk _______ prone