Psychology Exam

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Before the twentieth century, there was no concept of adolescence; children moved to adulthood either through physical maturity or when they began apprenticeships. Adolescence is a social construction
Primary sex characteristics are body parts directly related to reproduction.
Which of the following describes the major changes that occur in the brain during adolescence? growth and pruning of gray matter
A pattern of late bedtimes and oversleeping in the morning can contribute to insomnia
According to Piaget, adolescents are in which stage of cognitive development? formal operations
Todd, age 18, feels he can drink and drive safely but becomes angry at friends who drink and drive. What term would explain this behavior? personal fable
Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg's description of moral development because he focuses on values more important to males than females
Prosocial behavior increases in adolescence. Which of the following is also true of adolescent prosocial behavior? Girls show more prosocial behavior than boys typically do.
The most important factor that determines whether or not a student will finish high school is the student's active engagement in schooling.
The desirable outcome of the crisis of adolescence, according to Erikson, is being able to see oneself as a unique person with a meaningful role in life.
Sexual orientation seems to be determined at least partly by genetics
James Marcia identifies four identity states or statuses, according to the presence or absence of crisis and commitment
The desirable outcome of the crisis of adolescence, according to Erikson, is being able to see oneself as a unique person with a meaningful role in life
All of the following factors have been cited as playing a part in an adolescent's decision to engage in early sexual activity EXCEPT late entrance into puberty
The most prevalent sexually transmitted disease is human papilloma virus.
Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding romantic relationships during adolescence? Early adolescents think primarily about how romantic relationships may affect their status in the peer group.
Individuation refers to adolescents' struggles for autonomy and differentiation.
Involvement in cliques is most prominent in __________ adolescence. early
Collective efficacy refers to strength of social connections within the neighborhood.
A time when young people are no longer adolescents but have not yet become fully adult is called emerging adulthood
The leading cause of death among young adults is accidents.
Comparing health in various cultural groups in young adulthood, researchers have found that African American adults are more likely to have ________ and Latino adults are more likely to have __________ than Caucasian adults. high blood pressure; diabetes
Which of the following patterns of thinking is associated with postformal thought? ability to think both practically and abstractly
According to Kohlberg, which of the following events is likely to promote the development of postconventional moral reasoning in a young adult? becoming a parent
Recentering refers to the process that underlies the shift to an adult identity.
Bill, age 30, is searching for the right woman to share his life and future. According to Erikson's theory, Bill is at the stage of intimacy versus isolation.
During Levinson's age-30 transition, men take another look at their lives
Which of the following is NOT one of Costa and McCrae's Five Personality Dimensions? aggressiveness
In Sternberg's triangular theory, the three elements of love are intimacy, passion, and commitment.
Which of the following is TRUE about cohabitation? U.S. rates have increased dramatically since 1960.
According to Sternberg, the type of love that involves two people who are highly attracted to each other, who do not share emotions with each other, and have no real commitment for the future is: infatuation
Which of the following are predictors of a successful marriage: Communication and conflict management skills
In comparison with the previous generation, women today tend to have children later in life.
The "baby boomers" are part of what life stage today? middle adulthood
Tim has recently realized that he has difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds when he listens to his favorite music on the stereo. His condition is referred to as presbycusis

Loss of endurance during middle adulthood results from gradual decrease in the rate of
basal metobolism
The climacteric is a period of 2 to 5 years during which a woman's body undergoes changes that bring on menopause
The greatest work-related stressor is job loss
Cognitively speaking, __________ are in their prime. middle-aged adults
Advances in ___________ continue at least through middle adulthood and are relatively independent of general intelligence expertise or specialized knowledge
According to the research on creativity, at what ages do people show the highest levels of divergent thinking? late thirties
Positive mental health involves a sense of psychological well-being, which depends upon having a healthy sense of self
According to Erikson, generativity can take the form of fostering the development of the young
A psychological turning point that often yields new insights into the self and corrects life's design and trajectory is called a midlife review
As children move away from home, Gutmann identified a reversal of life roles called gender crossover
In a longterm marriage, positive aspects of the relationship, such as discussion, cooperation, and shared laughter, tend to follow a U-shaped curve
Some women find the time when their adolescent children leave home difficult, but they are outnumbered by other mothers who find it liberating
Friendships are most important for women in early middle adulthood
The empty nest does not signal the end of parenthood; it is a ____________ to a new stage: the relationship between parents and adult children. transition
Sue is 49 and has a 69-year-old mother. It is probable that Sue sees or talks to her mother frequently
Adults in the United States usually become grandparents in their forties and fifties
An important difference between primary and secondary aging is that primary aging is unavoidable.
The branch of medicine concerned with the aged and the aging process is geriatrics.
The traditional age for entering late adulthood is 65
Damage associated with free radicals, highly unstable oxygen atoms formed during metabolism, has been mentioned as a factor in all of the following EXCEPT genetic disorders.
The ability of body organs and systems to put forth extra effort in times of stress is called reserve capacity.
In addition to antidepressants for the treatment of depression, many elderly patients are also helped by psychotherapy.
Alexander, who is 75 years old, has not played golf for 25 years. Nevertheless, when he is asked to play golf in a fundraising event, he remembers how to perform all of the skills necessary to play golf, such as the grip, the backswing, and the follow-through. Alexander's knowledge of how to play golf represents what kind of memory? procedural
The general medical term for physiologically caused intellectual decline in old age is: dementia
Which of the following is an eye ailment that results from the center of the retina gradually losing its ability to distinguish fine details? age-related macular degeneration
Although there is a common belief that older adults tend to be depressed, research suggests that older adults grow more content and satisfied
The ability to adapt thinking and behavior to reduce or relieve stress that arises from harmful, threatening, and challenging conditions is referred to as coping
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1986) protects most workers age _____ and older from being denied a job, fired, paid less, or forced to retire because of age. 40
Clara has recently lost her spouse. To help her maintain satisfaction in life after this trauma, it is most important that Clara's family and friends provide emotional support.
U.S. women ages 65 and over are _______________________of the same age to be widowed. more likely than men
Which living arrangement is most desired by the majority of elderly Americans? aging in place
Which of the following statements about sisters and brothers in late adulthood is TRUE? Sisters tend to be more nurturing than brothers.
Older adults tend to use this type of cognitive-appraisal strategy most often emotion-focused
"Granny dumping', or leaving an older adult at a hospital without any identifying information or family with her, is one form of ______________: maltreatment or neglect of dependent older persons or violation of their personal rights. elder abuse
Cultural aspects of death include all of the following EXCEPT whether or not finances are in order.
About 50 percent of all recorded deaths in late adulthood in the United States are from which of the following causes? cancer, stroke, heart disease
When his grandfather died, Jerrod became very interested in the processes involved in the death of a loved one. He decided to go to college and study all he could in the field of __________ so that he could help others who had to face the death of their loved ones. thanatology
A group that provides attention to both physical symptoms and psychological distress of dying people is known as a _________intervention group dignity-conserving
An observable decline in cognitive abilities shortly before death is called a terminal drop.
Many of the patients in Kübler-Ross's study went through the same five stages of grief but not necessarily in the same sequence.
The initial emotional loss that Anna felt when her son died kept her from eating, going to work, or caring for her other children. This early emotional response is to the death of a loved one is known as grief.
All of the following are stages of grief work EXCEPT family must rid themselves of all of the objects that bring painful memories.
Deaths resulting from the World Trade Center attacks were examples of____________ loss, a situation where the loss was not clearly defined and therefore confusing and difficult to resolve. ambiguous
Approximately _____ of women are widowed by age 65. 30%
For women especially, the distress of a loss can often be a catalyst for introspection. Widows often discover submerged aspects of themselves and learn to stand on their own as they reevaluate their own lives.
The recent death of his father has sharpened Matthew's sense of mortality. As a result, he has developed a greater appreciation of the value of his personal friendships and a more mature outlook on life.
The two groups that have the highest suicide rates in the United States are whites and Native Americans.
Caroline is a first-year teacher in a school where there have been several reported suicides among the student body in the past several years. Which of the following student behaviors should she watch for as a warning sign of potential suicide? withdrawal from family or friends
Deliberate action taken to shorten the life of a terminally ill person, in order to end suffering and allow death with dignity, is called active euthanasia.
Advanced directives, often called "living wills," which are written while patients are still competent to make their own decisions, specify provisions with regard to all of the following EXCEPT time and method that you wish for your death.
Sally is 86 and would like to have an advanced directive that gives her son the ability to make decisions about her medical care in the event she becomes unable to do so. Which of the following documents does she need? durable power of attorney
A life review is a process that enables a person to see the significance of his or her life.
Piaget's final stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly Formal operations
Ability, believed by Piaget, to accompany the stage of formal operations, to develop, consider, and test hypotheses hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Acquired factual knowledge stored in long-term memory declarative knowledge
Acquired skills stored in long-term memory procedural knowledge
Acquired interpretive understanding stored in long-term memory conceptual knowledge
1st level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which control is external and rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment or out of self-interest preconventional morality
2nd level in Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which standards of authority figures are internalized conventional morality
3rd level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which people follow internally held moral principles and can decide among conflicting moral standards postconventional morality
According to Erikson, a coherent conception of the self, made up of goals, values, and beliefs to which a person is solidly committed identity
Erickson's 5th stage of psychosocial development, in which an adolescent seeks to develop a coherent sense of self, including the role she or he is to play in society. identity versus identity confusion
Marcia's term for states of ego development that depend on the presence or absence of crisis and commitment identity statuses
Marcia's term for period of conscious decision making related to identity formation crisis
Marcia's term for personal investment in an occupation or system of beliefs commitment
identity status, described by Marcia, that is characterized by commitment to choices made following a crisis, a period spent in exploring alternatives identity achievement
identity status, described by Marcia, in which a person who has not spent time considering alternatives (that is, has not been in crisis) is committed to other people's plans for his or her life foreclosure
identity status, described by Marcia, in which a person is currently considering alternatives (in crisis) and seems headed for commitment moratorium
identity status, described by Marcia, that is characterized by absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives identity diffusion
Parental practices that teach children about their racial/ethnic heritage and promote cultural practices and cultural pride cultural socialization
Pattern of emotional turmoil, characteristic of a minority of adolescents, which may involved conflict with family, alienation from adult society, reckless behavior, and rejection of adult values adolescent rebellion
Adolescent's struggle for autonomy and personal identity individuation
proposed transitional period between adolescence and adulthood emerging adulthood
type of logical thinking that may emerge in adulthood, involving continuous, active evaluation of information and beliefs in light of evidence and implications reflective thinking
mature type of thinking that relies on subjective experience and intuition as well as logic and is useful in dealing with ambiguity, uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection, and compromise postformal thought
Salovey and Mayer's term for ability to understand and regulate emotions; an important component of effective, intelligent behavior emotional intelligence
degree to which a person's work requires thought and independent judgment substantive complexity
hypothesis that a positive correlation exists between intellectuality of work and of leisure activities because of a carryover of cognitive gains from work to leisure spillover hypothesis
process that underlies the shift to adult identity recentering
theorectical models that describe psychosocial development in terms of a definite sequence of age-related changes normative-stage models
Erickson's sixth stage of development in which young adults either make commitments to others or face a possible sense of isolation and self-absorption intimacy vs isolation
in Levinson's theory, the underlying pattern of a person's life at a given time, built on whatever aspects of life the person finds most important life structure
in normative-stage theories, typical challenges that need to be mastered for successful adaptation to each stage of life developmental tasks
theoretical model of personality development that describes adult psychosocial development as a response to the expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of important life events timing-of-events model
in the timing-of-events model, commonly expected life experiences that occur at customary times normative life events
set of cultural norms or expectations for the times of life when certain important events should occur social clock
theoretical models of personality development that focus on mental, emotional, temperamental, and behavioral traits or attitudes trait models
theoretical model of personality, developed by Costa & McCrae, based on the “big five” factors underlying clusters of related personality traits: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness five-factor model
theoretical approach that identifies broad personality types, or styles typological approach
adaptability under potential sources of stress ego-resilliency
self-control ego-control
friends who are considered and behave like family members fictive kin
Sternberg's theory that patterns of love hinge on the balances among three elements: intimacy, passion, and commitment triangular theory of love
age-related progressive loss of eyes' ability to focus due to loss of elasticity in lens presbyopia
near-sightedness myopia
use of energy to maintain vital functions basal metabolism
amount of air that can be drawn in with a deep breath and expelled vital capacity
type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, that is applied to novel problems and is relatively independent of educational and cultural influences fluid intelligence
type of intelligence, proposed by Horn & Cattell, involving the ability to remember and se learned information; largely dependent on education and culture crystallized intelligence
in Hoyer's terminology, progressive dedication of information processing and fluid thinking to specfici knowledge systems, making knowledge more readily accessible encapsulation
Jung's term for emergence of the true self through balancing or integration of conflicting parts of the personality individuation
Erickson's 7th stage of development in which the middle aged adutl develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation or else experiences stagnation generativity vs stagnation
Erickson's term for concern of mature adults for establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation generativity
Neugarten's term for a concern with inner life appearing at middle age interiority
in some normative crisis models, stressful life period precipitated by the review and reevaluation of one's past, typically occuring in the early to mid 40s midlife crisis
introspective examination that often occurs in middle age, leading to reappraisal and revision of values and priorities midlife review
Whitborne's theory of identity development based on processes of assimilation and accomodation identity process theory
Whitborne's term for effort to fit new experience into an existing self concept identity assimilation
Whitborne's term for a tendency for adjusting the self concept to new experience identity accommodation
Whitborne's term for a tendency to balance assimilation and accommodation identity balance
theory that people move through life surrounded by concentric circles of intimate relationships on which they rely for assistance, well-being, and social support social convoy theory
theory that people select social contacts on the basis of the changing relative importance of social interaction as a source of information, as an aid in developing and maintain a self-concept and as a source of emotional well being socioemotional selectivity theory
financial and emotional benefits built up during a long standing marriage, which tend to hold a couple together marital capital
tendency for young adults who have left home to return to their parents' household during times of financial, marital, or other trouble revolving door syndrome
stage of life in which middle aged children as the outcome of a filial crisis, learn to accept and meet their parents' need to depend on them filial maturity
normative development of middle age, in which adults learn to balance love and duty to their parents with autonomy within a 2-way relationship filial crisis
middle aged adults squeezed by competing needs to raise or launch children and to care for elderly parents sandwich generation
study of the aged and process of aging gerontology
branch of medicine concerned with the processes of aging and medical conditions associated with old age geriatrics
period of life span marked by declines in physical functioning usually associated with aging; begins at different ages senescence
initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information sensory memory
short term storage of information being actively processed working memory
long term memory of specific experiences or events, linked to time and place episodic memory
long term memory of general factual knowledge, social customs, and language semantic memory
long term memory of motor skills, habits, and ways of doing things and can be recalled without conscious effort implicit/procedural memory
adaptive behavior or thinking aimed at reducing or relieving stress that arises from harmful, threatening, or challenging conditions coping
model of coping which holds that, on the basis of continuous appraisal of their relationship with the environment, people choose appropriate coping strategies to deal with situations that tax their normal resources cognitive-appraisal model
in the cognitive-appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward eliminating, managing, or improving a stressful situation problem focused coping
in the cognitive-appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward managing the emotional response to a stressful situation so as to lessen its physical or psychological impact emotion focused coping
theory of aging which holds that successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal of the older person and society disengagement theory
theory of aging which holds that in order to age successfully, a person must remain as active as possible activity theory
theory of aging which holds that in order to age successfully people must maintain a balance of continuity and change in both the internal and external structures of their lives continuity theory
enhancing over all cognitive functioning by using stronger abilities to compensate for those that have weakened selective optimization with compensation
pattern of retirement activity allocated among family, work, and leisure balanced investment
a frequently observed decline in cognitive abilities near the end of life loss, due to death, of someone to whom one feels close and the process of adjustment to the loss terminal drop
loss, due to death, of someone to whom one feels close and the process of adjustment to the loss bereavement
emotional response experienced in the early phases of bereavement grief
deliberate withholding or discontinuation of life-prolonging treatment of a terminally ill person in order to end suffering or allow death with dignity passive euthanasia
deliberate action taken to shorten the life of a terminally ill person in order to end suffering or allow death with dignity active euthanasia
reminiscence about one's life in order to see the significance life review