Phonology And Phonemes

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What is phonology? The description of the systems and patterns of speech sound in a language
What is phonology unconcious knowledge of? the sound patterns of one's language, the mental aspect of the sounds of language
How is phonology written? not in brackets, but in slash marks
What is a syllable? a unit of sound consisting of a vowel and optional consonants before or after the vowel
What are the two basic elements of a syllable? onset and rime
What does the rime consist of? a vowel (nucleus) plus any following consonants (coda)
What is the onset? one or more consonants
What is a consonant cluster? two or more consonant sounds in sequence
What is a phoneme? a distinct sound in a language, the smallest unit of sound that has a mental image and distinguishes meaning
How does a phoneme function? contrastively; there has to be something that distinguishes one phoneme from the other
What are the three most significant features in English? voice, place, manner
How would you write the features of [b]? voiced, bilabial, stop
What is a minimal pair? two words of different meaning that differ by only one phoneme; allow us to identify the phonemes of a language
What is a minimal set? a group of words that are different by one phoneme (always in the same position)
What are allophones? all the ways a given phoneme is articulated
What is aspiration? the little puff of air after the initial sounds in words like: case (aspirated) and lack (non-aspirated)
What is nasalization? when phonemes surrounding a nasal consonant take on the features of the nasal consonant
What are the two processes of co-articulation? assimilation and elision
What is assimilation? when one segment or phoneme "copies" another in a sequence of phonemes wehther between words or letters within words
What is elision? not producing a sound segment that might otherwise be present in deliberate pronunciation