A&P Exam 2

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Arteries are sometimes called ? vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have strong, resilient tissue structureA. resistanceB. capacitanceC. hydrodynamicD. complianceE. fenestrated A. resistance
? have the thickets tunica mediaA. small arteriesB. small veinsC. large arteriesD. large veinsE. capillaries C. large Arteries
The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the ? and in large arteries and veins contains the ?A. tunica media; smooth muscleB. tunica externa; vasa vasorumC. tunica externa; valvesD. tunica intima; endotheliumE. tunica intima; basement membrane B. tunica externa; vasa vasorum
most blood is in the ?A. pulmonary circuitB. heartC. arteriesD. veinsE. capillaries A. pulmonary circuit

this figure shows variations in circulatory pathways. The pathway labeled ? shows alternative routes of blood supply called a portal system.A. 1B. 2C. 3D. 4E. 5
C. 3
These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart EXCEPTA. heart->arteries->capillary bed->veins->heartB. heart->arteries->capillary bed-> vein->capillary bed->veins->heartC. heart->arteries->capillary bed->vein->capillary bed->arteries->heartD. heart->arteries->arterial anastomosis->capillary bed->veins->heartE. heart->arteries->arterial anastomosis->capillary bed->venous anastomosis->veins->heart C. heart->arteries->capillary bed->vein->capillary bed->arteries->heart
Vasomotion is associated with the presence of ?A. collagen and elastic tissue in the tunica mediaB. elastic tissue in the tunica externaC. endothelium in the tunica internaD. smooth muscle in the tunica mediaE. fenestrations in the tunica externa A. collagen and elastic tissue in the tunica media
The velocity of blood flow decreaes when ?A. viscosity increasesB. blood pressure increasesC. vessel radius increasesD. afterload increasesE. vasomotion decreases A. viscosity increases
? has the most important effect on blood velocityA. blood viscosityB. vessel radiusC. blood osmolarityD. hematocritE. vessel length B. vessel radius
All of these increase blood pressure EXCEPTA. norepinephrineB. ADHC. angiotensin IID. aldosterone E. atrial natriuretic peptide D. aldosterone
The vasomotor center of the ? controls blood vessels throughout the bodyA. hypothalamusB. medulla oblongataC. spinal cordD. cerebellumE. cortex B. Medulla oblongata
? are powerful vasoconstrictors, and ? also increase heart rateA. norepinephrine and ADH; ADHB. norepinephrine and atrial natriuretic peptide; norepinephrineC. epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrineD. epinephrine and aldosterone; epinephrineE. epinephrine and ADH; ADH C. epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine
These are all mechanisms of movement through the capillary wall EXCEPTA. reabsorptionB. filtrationC. secretionD. transcytosisE. diffusion C. secretion
The most important force driving filtration at the aterial end of a capillary is A. oncotic pressureB. tissue fluid colloid osmotic pressureC. blood colloid osmotic pressureD. interstitial hydrostatic pressureE. blood hydrostatic pressure C. blood colloid osmotic pressure
? by the capillaries at their venous endA. waste products are taken upB. oxygen and glucose are taken upC. oxygen and glucose are given offD. wastes are given offE. organic nutrients are taken up A. waste products are taken up
The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is A. oncotic pressureB. dehydrationC. blood colloid osmotic pressureD. interstitial hydrostatic pressureE. blood hydrostatic pressure E. blood hydrostatic pressure
? would NOT increase capillary filtrationA. blockage of lymphatic capillariesB. dehydrationC. increased capillary permeabilityD. dietary protein deficiencyE. obstructed venous return D. dietary protein deficiency
? does NOT contribute to venous returnA. the difference of pressure between venules and the venae cavaeB. the expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity during ventilationC. the suction created by the atria slightly expandng during ventricular systoleD. widespread vasodilationE. contraction of skeletal muscles of the limbs D. widespread vasodilation
? shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permeabilityA. compensatedB. anaphylacticC. neurogenicD. cardiogenicE. septic E. septic
A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which casuses ? and a(n) ? in arterial blood pressureA. vasodilation; decreaseB.vasodilation; increaseC. vasoconstriction; decreaseD. vasoconstriction; increaseE. vasocontriction; oscillation B. vasodilation; increase
The most important force in venous flow isA. cardiac suctionB. the pressure generated by the heartC. the skeletal muscle pumpD. the thoracic (respiratory) pumpE. one way flow due to valves B. the pressure generated by the heart
Pulmonary arteries have ? blood pressure compared to systemic arteriesA. similarB. a little lowerC. considerably lowerD. considerably higherE. a little higher D. considerably higher
How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?A. 0B. 1C. 2D. 4E. 7 B. 1
The lungs receive a SYSTEMIC blood supply by way of the A. right pulmonary arteryB. left pulmonary arteryC. pulmonary veinsD. bronchial arteriesE. lobar arteries E. lobar arteries
Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system?A. it helps control the pH of body fluidsB. it promotes the flow of lymph and venous bloodC. it helps regulate blood pressureD. it assists in the synthesis of vasodilatorsE. it helps with defecation E. it helps defecation
The upper respiratory tract extendsA. from the nose through the tracheaB. from the nose through the pharynxC. from the nose through the larynxD. from the nose through the alveoliE. from the nose through the lungs B. from the nose through the pharynx
The nose is divided into right and left halves termed the A. nasal cavitiesB. nasal fossaeC. nasal septaD. nasal vestibulesE. nasal apertures A. nasal cavities
Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages?A. vestibular and vocal ligamentsB. laryngeal and corniculateC. corniculate and cricoidD. cricoids and arytenoidsE. thyrohyoid and cricoids A. vestibular and vocal ligaments
The most numerous cells in the lungs are calledA. mucosal cellsB. type I alveolar cellsC. type II alveolar cellsD. alveolar macrophagesE. vibrissae B. type I alveolar cells
Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of capillaries supplied byA. the aortaB. the pulmonary arteryC. the pulmonary veinD. the inferior vena cavaE. the superior vena cava B. the pulmonary artery
Which of the following does NOT have cilia?A. the nasal cavityB. the tracheaC. the bronchiD. terminal bronchiolesE. respiratory bronchioles E. respiratory bronchioles

This structure is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal the the one on the opposite sideA. 1B. 2C. 3D. 4E. 5
D. 4
Which of the following cartilages is largest?A. the coniculate cartilageB. the epiglottic cartilageC. the thyroid cartilageD. the cricoid cartilageE. the arytenoid cartilage C. the thyroid cartilage
? states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of its individual gasesA. boyle's lawB. valsalva's lawC. dalton's lawD. charles's lawE. henry's law E. henry's law
In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?A. atmospheric pressureB. respiratory rateC. bronchiole diameterD. quantity of surfactantE. the diaphragm D. quantity of surfactant
The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is calledA. vital capacityB. inspiratory reserve volumeC. expiratory reserve volumeD. residual volumeE. inspiratory capacity B. inspiratory reserve volume
Vital capacity consists ofA. IRV+ expiratory volumeB. IRV+TVC. ERV+TVD. ERV+TV+IRVE. respiratory volume+TV D. ERV+TV+IRV
Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means exceptA. carbaminohemoglobinB. carbonic acidC. carbonateD. bicarbonate ionsE. dissolved gas C. carbonate
Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?A. an increase in membrane thicknessB. an increase an alveolar surface areaC. an increase in respiratory rateD. a decrease in membrane thicknessE. a decrease in nitrogen solubility A. an increase in membrane thickness
The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ? ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygenA. sodiumB. potassiumC. nitrogenD. hydrogenE. chloride E. chloride
Which of the following has NO effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?A. epinephrineB. feverC. thyroid hormoneD. low pHE. erythrocyte count C. thyroid hormone
Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?A. oxygenB. water vaporC. nitrogenD. carbon dioxideE. hydrogen C. nitrogen
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to ? oxygen moleculesA. 1B. 2C. 3D. 4E. 5 D. 4
Normally the systemic arterial blood has a Po2 of ? mm Hg, and a Pco2 of ? mm Hg, and a pH of ?A. 40; 95; 7.4B. 95; 40; 7.4C. 7.4; 40; 95D. 95; 7.4; 40E. 40; 7.4; 95 B. 95; 40; 7.4
Which of the following enzymes in a RBC breaks H2C03 down to water and carbon dioxide?A. hemoglobinB. carboxyhemoglobinC. carbonic anhydraseD. bisphosphoglycerateE. carbaminoreductase C. carbonic anhydrase
In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?A. 5-10B. 10-15C. 20-25D. 30-40E. 70-85 E. 70-85
Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ? of the respiratory tractA. squamos alveolar cellsB. great alveolar cellsC. the pleauraeD. ciliated cellsE. goblet cells E. goblet cells
The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ? than any other formA. carbaminohemoglobinB. carboxyhemoglobinC. bicarbonate ionsD. dissolved CO2 gasE. bisphosphocarbonate D. dissolved CO2 gas
Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500mL; your vital capacity is 4700ml; and your dead air space is 150ml. Your alveolar ventilation rate is ? mL/minute (AVR= (TV-dead space) x respiratory rate)A. 2400B. 3600C. 4200D. 5600E. 6400 C. 4200
Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; your spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1200mL. Your vital capacity is? (VC=ERV+TV+IRV)A. 2400B. 3000C. 3800D. 4700E. 5800 D. 4700