Humanities 207

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exedrae a semicircular bay or niche
heiratic style a style in which the importance of figures s indicated by size, so that the most important figure is largest.
iconoclasm the idea, practice, or doctrine of an iconoclast to destroy or ban religious images and their veneration.
mandorla The light encircling or emanating from the figure of a sacred person.
pendentive a triangular curving vault section that supports a dome over a square space.
reverse perspective a technique for conceiving of space as extending forward from the picture plane, with parallel lines converging on the eye of the beholder.
a capella without musical accompaniment.
animal interlace a type of decorative motif featuring elongated animals interlaced into serpentine ribbons.
animal style a style of decoration featuring symmetrical design, interlaced organic and geometric shapes, and animal motifs.
carpet page a descriptive term that refers to the resemblance between highly decorated pages of medieval manuscripts and Turkish or Islamic carpets.
chanson de geste a type of French medieval epic poem; literally "song of heroic deeds".
chivalric code the code of conduct for a knight: courage in battle, loyalty to his lord and peers, and courtesy toward women.
choir the part of a church formed by the separation of the apse from the transept crossing.
cloisonne a style of decoration in which strips of gold are set on edge to form small cells, which are filled with colored enamel glass
cloister a rectangular courtyard, typically arcaded and dedicated to contemplation and reflection.
Divine Office the duty of daily prayer recited by priests and other religious orders.
feudalism the main economic system of medieval Europe; based on the relationship between landowner and tenant.
fief a piece of land.
Gregorian Chant a type of liturgical chant popular during the time of Charlemagne.
jongleur a professional entertainer or minstrel who performed from court to court.
kenning a compound phrase used in poetry to substitute for the name of a person or thing.
knight a chevalier guided by a strict unwritten code of conduct.
melismatic in later medieval chant, the practice of singing a single syllable to many notes.
monophonic a song in which one or many voices sing a single melodic line with no harmony.
motte and bailey a type of castle consisting of a raised earth mound (motte) and the enclosed courtyard at its base (bailey)
neum a note in traditional Gregorian notation, usually indicated by a small square.
neumatic a simple chant form in which each syllable is sung to a single note.
plainchant plainsong; a liturgical chant
refectory a dining hall
scriptorium The hall in which monks worked to copy and decorate biblical texts.
strophic the same music repeated for each stanza of a poem.
syllabic one note per syllable.
westwork an imposing, sometimes monumental entrance of a church made up of two tall towers flanking a multistoried narthex.
archivolt a curved molding formed by the voussoirs making up the arch.
barrel vault an elongated arched masonry structure spanning and interior space and shaped like half a cylinder.
bay a main section of a nave formed by the round arches of a vault.
crenellation a battlement
free organum a type of polyphony in which the second voice moves in contrary motion to the bass chant.
jamb the vertical elements on both sides of a door that support the lintel or arch.
lai a short romance fusing, supernatural elements and the courtly love tradition, sung by mintrels and accompanied by harp or lyre.
medieval romance a story of adventure and love the pretended to be a true historical account of Charlemagne, King Arthur, or Roman legend.
memento mori a reminder of death.
organum a type of polyphonic music consisting of voices singing note to note in parallel.
polyphony music with two or more lines of melody.
primogeniture in the feudal system, the right of the eldest son to inherit all property.
relic an object venerated because of its association with a Christian saint or martyr.
reliquary a container used to protect and display relics.
Romanesque an art historical period so-called because the architecture incorporated elements of Roman architectural tradition.
tomb effigy a sculptural portrait of the deceased.
trobaritz a woman trobadour.
trobadour a class of poets that flourished in the 11th thru 13th centuries in southern France and Northern Italy.
trumeau The column or post in the middle of a large door supporting the lintel.
tympanum the space created under the portal arch, often filled with scultural relief.