Endocrine System

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_______are secreted by theendocrine system. Hormones
The Nervous system works with the endocrine system by ____________ _____________.
nervous impulses
The target cells of the endocrine system are all the ________________ of the body. cells
_______________ glands are responsible forreleasing their products into ducts (inside thebody or on body surfaces). exocrine
____________ glands are ductless and release their products into the blood. endocrine
Thyroid (T3 and T4), steroids hormones, and gas (Nitric Oxide) are examples of __________soluble hormones. lipid
Name four steroid hormones that are derivedfrom cholesterol and are lipid soluble. __________, _________, _________, and __________. Aldosterone, Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone
________________ and norepinephrine aremodified forms of amino acids tyrosine and are produced in the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine
Eicosanoids, Peptides and Proteins, and Amine hormones are examples of _________________soluble hormones. Water
Anterior and Posterior Pituitary hormones,Pancreatic hormones, and Parathyroidhormones are derived from amino acids. Which category of hormones do they belong? Proteins and Peptides
________________ are derived from a fatty acid(Arachidonic acid), mostly local (work where they are released), two examples are Prostaglandinsand Leukotrienes. Eicosanoids
_________________ behave as though they arewater soluble. Eicosanoids
Parathyroid releases parathormone causes bones to release Ca2+ blood Ca2+ level rises parathyroid turns off parathormone levels drop and blood Ca2+ drop parathyroid begins to release parathormone. This process is an example of ________________feedback. Negative feedback system
Hormones only effect ________________ cells that contain receptor (proteins) molecules on theperipheral cells. Target cells
Which gland works as an endocrine and exocrine gland Pancreas
________________ gas behaves as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide
We can consider the hypothalamus a___________organ. Neuroendocrine
Oxytocin is released by _____________ mechanism. Positive feedback mechanism
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolicfunction of other cells in the body are called______. Hormones
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects by means ofintracellular _____________. Second-messenger
The ________________ produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body. Pancreas
________________ gland produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassiumby their removal from bone tissue.
The _________________ gland produces the body's major metabolic hormones. Thyroid
________________ effect is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effect without another hormone being present. (ex. estrogenand progesterone are needed for ovulation) Permissive (priming) effect
_________________ effect occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effect at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified.
(thyroxin and human growth hormone contribute to growth and development;epinephrine and glucagon cause liver to release glucose to the blood)
Synergistic effect
The Anterior Pituitary gland
Pituitary gland
Antidiuretic hormone isproduced by
Two tropic hormones
Human growth hormone and prolactin are examples of?
Norepinephrine (NE)

Pituitary is functionally linked to
Chief cells secrete
One of the two hormones, that are working together, acts to return the body conditions to within acceptable limits from opposite extremes are called?
Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex causes ________________disease.
Hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults causes ________________.
The size and shape of a pea; produceshormones that stimulate other endocrine glands is called ____________________.
The ________________ gland that controls the fight-or-flight reaction.
ADH is inhibited by_____.

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ___________________.
Insulin, a small (51-amino-acid) protein, is synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas. This hormone is released when the body'sglucose level needs to be ______________.
The _____________ operates by binding to specific receptors and employing the services of the G protein.
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
______________ systems, activated when a hormone binds to a plasma membrane receptor, activate G- proteins within the cell that alter enzyme activity.
_____________ hormone promotes ovulation in females and production of gonadal hormones.
Secreted by the thyroid gland, ______________ is a peptide hormone that lowers blood calcium by inhibiting osteoclast activity, and stimulates Ca2+ uptake and incorporation into the bonematrix.
______________ secretion is regulated by the reninangiotensin mechanism, fluctuating blood concentrations of sodium and potassium ions, and secretion of ACTH.

The _____________ produces thymopoietin, thymic factor, and thymosin, which are essential for thedevelopment of T lymphocytes and the immune response.
______________ gland indirectly receives input from the visual pathways in order to determine thetiming of day and night.
The major targets of growth hormone are ______________ and ______________.

The _____________ is responsible for synthesizing ANP.
Alpha islet cells of the pancreas produce ______________, an extremely potent hyperglycemic (increased level of blood glucose) hormone.
______________ hormone cause release of glucose to the blood by the liver cells, which causes blood glucose levels to rise.

_____________ hormone stimulates gamete (ovarian follicle; sperm) production.
_______________ hormone lowers glucose levels in blood.
________________disease is an autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland.
Hyposecretion (low secretions) of growthhormone is described as _________________.
Hyposecretion (low secretions) of the pancreas causes __________________.
Hypersecretion (excessive secretion) of the adrenal cortex causes _______________disease.
Hypersecretion (excessive secretion) of growth hormone before puberty causes _______________.
Hyposecretion (low secretions) of the thyroid hormones in infants causes _________________.
Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the_______.

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of thepituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ____________.
Leptin is secreted by ________________.
The hormone that raises blood sugar levels
An essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.

The ________ are the pancreatic islet (Islets of Langerhans) cells that produce insulin.

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplishedthrough _____________.

Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by________.
The _________________ hormone promotes long bone growth during the formative years.
Beta islet cells produce ______________, an extremely potent hypoglycemic (lowers bloodglucose) hormone.

______________, is a disorder caused by excessproduction of growth hormone.
______________ soluble hormones are able to penetrate through the cell membrane, without the aid of a receptor protein and bind toreceptors located inside the cell.
In adult humans the outer _________ comprises about 80 to 90 percent of each adrenal gland.
The thyroid is stimulated by the anterior ______________ gland hormone TSH to produce two hormones, thyroxine (T4) andtriiodothyronine (T3) in the presence of iodide.
______________ is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium and water and the release (secretion) of potassium in the kidneys.
Second messengers include ______________, ______________, and ______________.
Infections, emotions, and temperature extremes are typical ______________ that trigger a stress response.
The ______________ is the first stage in the general adaptation syndrome or stress response.
The ______________ hormone is responsible for increasing blood sugar from glycogen, fat (lipid) breakdown, and cell growth via protein synthesis.
Name the three roles or unknown roles regarding the hormone oxytocin. __________, ___________, and __________.
The ______________ is the primary target organ for the action of glucagon.
The ______________ hormone is responsible for triggering the production of the ova by the ovaries.

The ______________ pituitary hormone controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone can cause gigantism if it begins in childhood, but is more likely to cause _____________ if it begins in adulthood.
Destruction of the β cells of the pancreas would cause a loss of ______________ secretion.
e hormone makes a target cell more responsive to another hormone that follows later, the first hormone is said to have a _____________ effect.
Parathyroid hormone is antagonized by ________.
Rather than being synthesized in the cell like other second messengers, _____________ entersthe cell through the plasma membrane.
Tropic hormones are different from other hormones because they ____________.
The thymus secretes the hormones _____________ and _____________ which regulate______________.
The stress response, or general adaptation syndrome (GAS), primarily involves the elevated levels of these two hormones.
The most common forms of moderate and severe hypoglycemia occur as a complication of treatment of diabetes mellitus treated with_________________.
The ________________ controls secretions of the adenohypophysis by way of ________________.

In the second stage of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) the ________________, ________________, and ________________ glands release hormones.
If a person suffers from Diabetes mellitus they would experience _____________, ______________, _____________, and _____________.