Cosmetology Exam Review 12: Hair Styling

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Using the fingers, combs, and waving lotion to shape and direct the hair into S-shaped waves is called: finger waving

Finger waving is a way of styling hair that teaches the technique of moving and directing hair.
During finger waving, waving lotion is applied to the hair to keep it; pliable

When the hair is pliable, it is easier to work with and to keep in place during the procedure.
A good finger waving lotion: does not flake when dry

A good waving lotion is designed to keep the hair in place but should dry without flaking.
You should apply finger waving lotion: to one side of the head at a time

This prevents it from drying and requiring additional applications.
Using the fingers to pinch or push ridges in a finger wave creates: overdirection of the ridge

Attempting to increase the height or depth of a ridge by pinching or pushing will create overdirection.
Pin curls are made up of three principal parts; base, stem, and: circle

The circle is the part of the pin curl that forms a complete circle.
In a pin curl, the part between the base and first arc (turn) of the circle is the: stem

The stem gives the circle its direction and mobility.
The nonmoving part of the pin curl, closest to the scalp, is the: base

The base is the stationary, or immovable, foundation of the curl, closest to the scalp.
The pin curl stem position that produces a tight, firm, long-lasting curl is the: no-stem curl

The no-stem curl is placed directly on the base of the curl and produces a tight, firm curl.
The pin curl stem position that gives the greatest curl mobility is the: full-stem curl

The curl is placed completely off the base and gives as much freedom as the length of the stem will permit.
Before you form pin curls, you first mold a section of hair called the: shaping

Shapings are either forward end or closed end.
Pin curls with open centers produce: uniform curls

Open center curls also produce even, smooth waves.
If a fluffy curl is desired, use: closed center curls

Closed center curls are good for fine hair or fluffy curls.
Of the four pin curl foundations or bases, the most commonly used base is the: arc base

Arc base pin curls, also known as half-moon or C-shape base curls, are carved out of a shaping.
One factor in the formation of pin curls that does not affect the finished curl is the: shape of the base

Different bases are recommended for different parts of the head, but the finished curl is not affected by the shape of the base itself.
Triangular base pin curls are recommended along the front or facial hairline to: prevent splits in the finished style

The triangular base allows a portion of the hair from each curl to overlap the next and comb into a uniform wave without splits.
For curly hairstyles without much volume or lift, use pin curls with: square bases

Square base pin curls can be used on any part of the head and will comb out with lasting results.
Forcing the hair between the thumb and the back of the comb to create tension is called: ribboning

Ribboning can be also be done by pulling the strands while applying pressure between your thumb and index finger toward the ends of the strand.
Slicing pin curls from a shaping and forming them without lifting the hair creates: carved curls

Carved curls are also called sculptured curls.
When a pin curl is correctly anchored or secured: the clip enters at the open end

Always anchor pin curls starting at the open end of the curl, opposite the stem.
To form a wave behind a ridge, use: ridge curls

Ridge curls are pin curls placed immediately behind of below a ridge to form a wave.
When you form two rows of ridge curls, especially on the side of the head, you create: a strong wave pattern

This pattern is called skip waves, with well-defined lines between the waves.
If you want to create height in the hairstyle with pin curls, use: cascade curls

Cascade or stand-up curls are fastened to the head in a standing position to allow the hair to flow upward and then downward.
Barrel curls, which are similar to rollers, are fastened to the head on a: rectangular base

A barrel curl is similar to a roller, which is also set on a rectangular base.
One of the advantages of rollers is that each roller holds the equivalent of: two to four stand-up curls

Because a roller holds the equivalent of two to four stand-up curls, it is a much faster way to set the hair.
Rollers are used to create many of the same effects as stand-up pin curls, but they: give a stronger set

Because the hair is wrapped around the roller with tension, the set is stronger and longer-lasting.
A roller curl is positioned on a panel of hair called the: base

The base should be the same length and width as the roller.
The part of a roller curl between the scalp and the first turn of the roller is the: stem

The stem gives the hair direction and mobility.
The size of a roller wave or curl is determined by the: circle or curl

The circle, or curl, is the hair that is wrapped around the roller.
Winding the hair around the roller 1-1/2 times creates: a wave

To create a wave, the roller should be the right size for the hair to roll around it 1-1/2 times.
If a C shape is desired, the hair should be wound around the roller: One turn

One complete turn produces a C shape.
The size of the roller and ________ determine the volume of the finished hairstyle. how it sits on its base

The larger the roller, the greater the volume. The more directly the roller sits on its base, the greater the volume.
Fitting a roller curl directly on its base produces: full volume

The roller should sit directly on its base for full volume.
The type of roller placement that produces the least amount of volume is the: off-base method

An off-base curl, in which the roller sits behind the base, produces the least volume.
If rollers are loose because they are not properly secured, the result will be: a weak set

A loose roller loses its tension, leading to a weak set.
Hot rollers and Velcro rollers are different from other types of rollers in that they are used: only on dry hair

Both these types of rollers are used on dry hair and stay on the hair for only 5 to 10 minutes.
One of the purposes of back-combing and back-brushing is to: remove roller indentations

These comb-out techniques help smooth out the indentations left by rollers.
The terms teasing, ratting, matting, and French lacing all mean: back-combing

The technique known by all these names is one of the best means to achieve lift and increase volume.
Another name for the technique called ruffing is: back-brushing

Ruffing, or back-brushing, is used to build a soft cushion or to mesh two or more curl patterns together for a uniform and smooth comb-out.
To keep curly or extremely curly hair smooth and straight, use the technique called: hair wrapping

Hair wrapping is similar to roller setting using very large rollers, but the head itself is used as the "roller."
When blow-drying, to direct the air stream to any section of the hair more intensely, use the: concentrator

The nozzle attachment, or concentrator, is a directional feature.
The blow-dryer attachment called the diffuser causes air to flow: more softly

The diffuser helps to accentuate or keep textural definition.
Always make sure that the air intake at the back of a blow-dryer is kept: clear

If it is covered and air cannot pass through freely, the dryer element could burn out.
Comb teeth that are closely spaced: create a smooth surface

Closely spaced teeth remove definition from the curl, thus creating a smooth surface.
The classic styling brush features excellent airflow through the brush and a: half-rounded rubber base

This brush also has smooth, round-ended nylon quills, usually in 7 or 9 rows.
The oval brush that has natural bristles or quills of bristle and nylon mix is the: grooming brush

The boar bristles distribute scalp oils throughout the hair shaft, giving it shine, and the nylon bristles stimulate blood circulation to the scalp.
When used in conjunction with a blow-dryer, smaller round brushes: add more curl

Because of their small size, the hair can be wrapped around them more times to create more curl.
A styling product that is light and airy and resembles shaving foam is: mousse

Mousse, or foam, builds moderate body and volume into the hair.
The hairstyling product that is used most widely is: hair spray

Hair spray is used to hold a hairstyle in position.
A styling product that causes strands to join together, showing separation in the hair, is: pomade or wax

Used on dry hair, pomade or wax makes the hair easy to mold.
When blow-drying the hair, always remember to direct the blow-dryer: from scalp to ends

The hot air should flow in the direction in which the hair is wound; improper technique will rough up the cuticle and give the hair a frizzy appearance.
You may find it difficult to style an updo with hair that has been: freshly washed

Freshly washed hair can be very slippery and difficult to work with; washing it the previous day is often recommended.
Thermal waving is also called: marcel waving

Marcel Grateau, a Frenchman, developed the technique of using thermal irons for waving and curling in 1875, and we still call it marcel waving today.
Thermal waving and curling are performed using thermal irons and special techniques on: dry hair

Thermal irons are always used on dry hair.
When thermal curling and waving, use thermal irons made of the best quality: steel

High-quality steel holds the heat evenly during the waving and curling process.
Marcel irons, also called conventional thermal irons, are: stove-heated

Conventional or marcel irons are heated in a special stove.
Pressed hair should not be treated with electric vaporizing irons, which can make the hair: return to its natural curly state

The moisture in vaporizing irons can cause the hair to return to its natural, extremely curly state.
When thermal curling or thermal waving white, lightened, or tinted hair, it is advisable: to use lukewarm thermal irons

Do not use hot thermal irons on white, lightened, or tinted hair.
There are two parts in the styling portion of a thermal iron, the rod and the: shell

The rod rests in the shell when the irons are closed.
There is no one correct temperature for the irons when thermal waving or curling, because it depends on the: texture of the hair

Temperature setting depends on whether the hair is fine or coarse, lightened or tinted, or white.
After heating the irons to the desired temperature, test them on: a piece of tissue paper

Clamp the irons over the tissue and hold for 5 seconds. If the paper scorches or turns brown, the irons are too hot.
The comb used with thermal irons should ideally be made of: hard rubber

Hard rubber is nonflammable, which is important when you're working with hot irons.
Thermal irons are manipulated with a rolling movement of the: fingers

Only the fingers are used as you roll the handles in either direction.
A type of thermal curl used to give the hair ends a finished appearance is: end curls

Hair ends can be turned under or over, as desired, for a finished look.
Hanging curls are created with thermal irons in a method called: spiral curls

Hanging curls are suitable for medium to long hairstyles.
A finished hairstyle can be given ________ by using volume thermal iron curls. lift

Volume thermal iron curls create various degrees of lift or volume in a finished hairstyle, depending on the type of curl used.
A volume-base thermal curl is held at a 135-degree angle, rolled in the usual manner, and placed: forward and high on its base

Volume-base thermal curls provide maximum lift and volume.
The type of thermal curl known as full-base curls provides: a strong curl with full volume

This curl is placed firmly in the center of its base.
To form half-base curls, hold the hair at a: 90-degree angle

Half-base curls provide a strong curl with moderate lift or volume.
A thermal curl option with only slight lift or volume is provided by the: off-base curl

The off-base thermal curl is held at a 70-degree angle as it is wrapped over the rod, then placed completely off its base.
A good thermal curl or wave is ensured when the hair is: clean

The hair should be clean and completely dry to ensure a good thermal curl or wave.
One guideline for thermal curling or waving is to avoid fishhooks, which are caused when the: hair ends protrude from the irons

The hair ends should always be curled along with the rest of the strand; otherwise they become bent or folded into fishhooks.
Hair pressing is a popular and profitable service that: temporarily straightens hair

Hair pressing temporarily straightens extremely curly or unruly hair.
Hair pressing generally lasts: until the next shampoo

Hair pressing is a temporary procedure that lasts until the hair is next shampooed.
Hair pressing can be done in three ways; the soft press, hard press, and: medium press

The medium press removes about 60% to 75% of the curl and is accomplished by applying the thermal pressing comb once on each side of the hair with pressure.
Of the three types of hair pressing, the one that removes the least amount of curl is the: soft press

The soft press, which removes 50% to 60% of the curl, is accomplished by applying the thermal pressing comb once on each side of the hair.
When pressing the hair, a factor that must be taken into account when setting the temperature of the comb is the hair's: texture

Different textures require different temperatures. Coarse hair or wiry, curly hair requires more heat; fine hair requires less.
The hair type that presents the least difficulty during pressing is: medium curly hair

Medium curly hair is the normal type cosmetologists deal with in the salon. It is the least resistant to hair pressing.
The least heat and pressure are used when pressing hair that is: fine

Fine hair generally has only 2 layers, the cortex and the cuticle. To avoid breakage, less heat and pressure should be applied than for the other textures.
The type of hair pressing in which a heated comb is applied twice on each side of the hair is called a: hard press

A hard press removes 100% of the curl. It can also be done by passing a hot curling iron through the hair first (double press).
Hair strands that are burned during pressing: cannot be conditioned

Once the hair is burned, it cannot be returned to a healthy state even with conditioning treatments.
Coarse hair requires more heat during pressing because it: has the greatest diameter

Because of its great diameter, coarse hair requires more heat and pressure during pressing.
When pressing fine hair, you can avoid breakage by using: less heat and pressure

Because fine hair usually has only two layers, the cortex and cuticle, it requires more careful handling.
Pressing gray, tinted, or lightened hair with excessive heat may: discolor the hair

Excessive heat on tinted, lightened, or gray (unpigmented) hair may cause discoloration or breakage.
Pressing dry, brittle hair without conditioning treatments beforehand may lead to: hair breakage

Hair that has been neglected or damaged is in a weakened state and may not tolerate the heat and pressure of a hair pressing.
When pressing, one way to avoid the smoking or burning of the hair is to use: less pressing oil

Too much pressing oil can cause the hair to smoke or burn.
A variation of the hard press in which a hot curling iron is passed through the hair before the pressing comb is called: a double press

A double press is a kind of hard press, except that the first application of heat is done with a hot curling iron and the second with a pressing comb.
Clients whose hair has been pressed may come to the salon between shampoos for: touch-ups

Touch-ups may be necessary if the hair becomes curly again due to perspiration, dampness, or other conditions.
Wiry, curly hair is: is difficult to press

Wiry, curly hair feels stiff, hard, and glassy. Because of the compact construction of the cuticle cells, it is very resistant to hair pressing.
To prepare the hair for pressing, divide it into: Four sections

The hair should be divided into four main sections, then subdivided into 1" to 1-1/2" partings.
Your analysis of the client's scalp will tell you if it is normal, flexible, or: tight

A tight scalp can be made more flexible by the systematic use of scalp massage, hair brushing, and direct high-frequency current.
The kind of hair pressing in which the pressing comb is applied once on each side of the hair is called a: soft press

A soft press removes about 50% to 60% of the curl.
Both regular and electric pressing combs should be made of good-quality steel or: brass

Brass and steel hold the heat evenly and are the best materials for a pressing comb.
The part of the comb that does the actual hair pressing or straightening is the: back rod

As you draw the pressing comb through the hair, you make a quick turn so that the hair wraps itself partly around the comb, and the back rod does the pressing.
Depending on the stylist, the application of pressing oil may be done before or after the hair is: thoroughly dried

Some stylists apply pressing oil before the hair is dried with a blow-dryer or hood dryer; other stylists do it afterwards.
Effective conditioning treatments include special cosmetic preparations for the hair and scalp, thorough brushing, and: scalp massage

A scalp massage makes the scalp more flexible and helps achieve better results from hair pressing.
To remove carbon and give the comb a smooth and shiny appearance, immerse the metal portion in a solution of: hot baking soda

Immersion in a hot baking soda solution is done after cleaning the comb with an emery board, fine steel-wool pad, or fine sandpaper.
One problem that may be caused by too much hair pressing is: breaking and shortening of the hair

If the hair is pressed too frequently, it becomes weaker and may break and shorten.
To remove carbon from a pressing comb, rub it with: an emery board

The carbon can be removed with an emery board, fine steel-wool pad, or fine sandpaper.
When pressing shorter hair at the back of the neck and on the temples, do not use: high heat

On shorter hair a hot comb can cause accidental burns on the skin.