Chem 30A Final

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1. What is the name of the functional unit of the kidney? nephron
1. The basic unit of nervous tissue is the ______. Neuron
1. Which type of tissue forms a communication and coordination system within the body? Nerve Cells
1. The main function of muscle tissue is ______. Contract
1. Reabsorption is the movement of substances from the ______ to the ______. Filtrate/blood
1. Name a physiological response that takes place in many animals when they get too hot? (think blood) retention of water
1. Excretion is the movement of substances from the ______ to the ______. Bladder/outside
1. The connection between structure and ______ is a basic concept of biology function
1. Most homeostasic mechanisms depend on ______. Negative feedback
1. What fills the spaces between cells in animals more complex than Hydra? Intersticial fluid
1. Functions of the kidneys? (name 4) removes waste, produces EPO for red blood cells, regulates blood pressure, produces Calcitrol
1. A diuretic is a substance that ______. promotings the formation and excretion of Urine
1. Which muscle tissue is responsible for voluntary movement? Skeletal Muscle
1. A main function of most types of epithelial tissue is ______. Protection
1. Which of the following distinguishes cardiac muscle from both smooth and skeletal muscle? Cardiac muscle has branched cells.
1. The process by which feces are forced through the anus and out of the body is called ______. defecation
1. The stomach mixes the food with the secretions of the stomach wall to form ______. acid chyme
1. The epithelial cells lining the intestine have surface projections that increase the area for absorption. These projections are called ______. microvilli
1. Certain amino acids are called essential because they ______. cannot be made from other amino acids
The tongue does all of the following (name 4) push food into the pharynx, manipulate food, shape food into ball, taste food. Does NOT secrete saliva
1. Altogether, the body secretes about 7 liters of water into the alimentary canal each day. About what percentage of this water gets reabsorbed? 90%-95%
Which portion of the digestive tract is specialized for absorption of the nutrients? Small intestines
1. Movement of food from the stomach into the esophagus is usually prevented by ______. esophigal sphincter
1. Digestion takes place in specialized compartments for all of the following reasons except ______. the environment of digestion must protect the food
1. The function of the sphincter at the downstream end of the stomach is to ______. release acid chyme into the duodenum in periodic squirts
1. Muscular action propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called ______. Peristalsis
1. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. What is the name given to the starch-digesting enzyme secreted by salivary glands? amylase
1. Absorption of water is one major function of which of the following structures? colon
1. Which of the following mechanisms helps prevent the gastric juice from digesting the stomach lining? mucus lining the inside surface of the stomach
1. Which of the following is the usual cause of heartburn? reflux of acid chyme from the stomach into the lower esophagus
1. The esophagus and trachea are both open to the ______. Both to the mouth on one end, the other end to stomach and lungs respectively
1. When the wall of the stomach fails to protect itself from erosion by gastric juice, the result is ______ a gastric ulcer
1. Digestion is the ______. Chemical(enzymatic)/mechanical(chewing)
1. You increase your risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing your consumption of ______. (think diet) fruits+veggies
1. Which of these carry(ies) oxygen-poor blood? (think pulmonary system) Right ventrical
1. Oxygen is mostly transported through the body ______. In Hemoglobin
1. Professional athletes may abuse the chemical erythropoietin because it ______. encourages rapid production of red blood cells. Red blood cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide for the muscles.
A scientist claimed that students might get better scores on written exams if they wiggle their legs frequently while taking an exam. This could work (but it is not better than studying) because wiggling legs might increase circulation
Animals need O2 because it ______. primarily used by all living things to breakdown food to energy in a process called oxidation
1. Plasma is primarily ______. (made of?) water
1. Why is blood pressure higher during systole than during diastole?

systolic is the pressure on the artery walls during exercise, diastolic is the pressure during rest
1. Blood pressure that is consistently ______ or higher would indicate that you have hypertension. 140/90
1. Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across ______. Alveoli
1. White blood cells play a particularly important role in ______. The immune system
1. When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again? rising carbon dioxide concentration
1. What path does a molecule of O2 take from the nose to the respiratory surface? Pharynx → larynx → trachea → bronchus → bronchiole → alveolus
1. As a consequence of red blood cells' lack of nuclei and other organelles, they ______. have more surface area available for gas exchange
1. Breathing is regulated by ______. autonomic centers in the brain
1. It is best to receive an organ transplant from a donor who ______. best matches your self-proteins
1. What has caused the evolution of drug-resistant strains of HIV? anti-AIDS drugs
1. The two main functions of the lymphatic system are ______. returning tissue fluid to the circulatory system and fighting infections
1. Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person? autoimmune
Humans that are infected with avian influenza are likely to have elevated levels of ______. Interferons
1. A primary immune response is the ______. First time immune system sees the antigen
1. What is the best defense against HIV? education
1. Antibodies are made of ______. Proteins
Which cell types are the main warriors of cell-mediated immunity? cytotoxic T cells
1. Our nonspecific defense system is triggered by which reaction? inflammation
1. Which cells initiates an immune response by acting as an antigen-presenting cellengulfing an invader and presenting its antigens to other immune cells? Macrophage/antigen presenting cell
1. Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever? because the brain's temperature control center responds to systemic inflammation by creating a hot environment unfavorable to microorganisms
1. Which cell types initiates a secondary immune response? Memory cells
1. Which compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete? histamine
1. When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals? histamine
1. Which type of disease is almost always associated with obesity? Type 2 diabetes
1. Which gland exerts primary control over the concentration of sugar in the blood? Pancreas
1. FSH is a hormone that ______. ovaries, stimulates development of eggs and follicles; - testes, stimulates production of sperm
1. What is the metabolic abnormality that underlies the characteristic symptoms of diabetes mellitus, such as frequent urination? Tһе body’s cells саח′t absorb enough glucose frοm tһе blood.(obesity)
1. Which of the following choices does not pair an endocrine gland or hormone with an aspect of metabolism that it regulates?
prolactinblood potassium levels
1. Which hormone causes a rise in the concentration of sugar in the blood? glucagon
Nonsteroid hormones are made of ______. amino acids, or proteins and peptides
1. Hypothalamus, where is it located? below the thalamus, just above the brain stem
1. Where does a steroid-receptor complex act in a cell? Inside the wall
1. Which gland produces releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones? Pituitary gland
1. Which of these hormones acts counter to the diuretic effect of alcohol? ADH
1. In the human body, calcium levels are regulated by the ______. Parathyroid gland
From what kind of molecules are steroid hormones made? Lipids
1. The cerebral cortex is highly folded. Why might this be an advantage for the functions of the cerebrum? The increased surface area increases the area for higher-level thinking
1. Which component of the human eye forms the iris? coroid
1. A person who cannot focus on distant objects has ______. Myopia
1. You start to trip, but you keep your balance and don't fall. Which of the following brain regions is responsible for the rapid coordination of muscle activity that kept you from falling? Cerebellum
1. Standing out in center field, the baseball player watches the hitter's bat strike the ball and then, slightly later, hears the sound of the impact. What types of sensory receptors did the player just use? photoreceptors and mechanoreceptors (photo/electro)
Which of the following is(are) part of the central nervous system? Brain/spine
1. At a chemical synapse, what causes the ion channels on the receiving cell's membrane to close? The neurotransmitter is broken down by an enzyme.
1. Would you expect motor units to vary in size? If so, which of these structures would probably have the largest ones? Yes, muscles
1. Which one of the following helps combat osteoporosis? Exercise, estrogen, hormone therapy.
1. One of your best friends loves to run long distances. You ask her what she enjoys about running. In addition to good physical fitness, she tells you that after a run she feels extra happy. You suspect that her joy might be related to increased production of ______ by the anterior pituitary gland. endorphines
1. Integration ______. (Define) interpretation stimuli and response
1. If aqueous humor is not drained, the likely result will be the development of ______. Glaucoma
1. Outnumbering neurons by up to 50 to 1, which cells protect, insulate, and reinforce neurons? supporting cells
1. As you prepare to head off to class, you reach up to grab a pencil, but poke the tip of your finger. Quickly, and without thinking, you pull your hand back. Which of the following is the correct sequence of neuronal action involved in this reflexive response? sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron
1. Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect? Help T cells
1. A major function of natural killer cells is to ______. Reject tumors and cells infected by viruses/destroy cancer cells
1. Which of the following is the correct sequence in a signal transduction pathway? Reception, transduction, reaction
1. Where would we expect to find electrical synapses? heart
1. Examine the photograph of the hand in the following figure. The person’s joints are severely damaged because ______. B cells have made antibodies to the joint
1. Which is mostly involved in a long-lasting response to stress? glucocorricoid
1. When light levels suddenly increase, our eyes adjust quickly by reducing the size of the ______. pupil