Chapter 26

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The U.S. stock market crash led to a global economic depression because
American lenders called in their international debts, which undermined banks and industry abroad.
Although all European countries suffered during the Great Depression, the country listed below that experienced the least disruption to its productive capacity was France.
Despite the depression and being far less developed economically than their Western
neighbors, some eastern European countries increased industrial capacity, particularly
Which of the following does not accurately describe a source of social tension during the
Great Depression?
Many people fled the cities, overwhelming the ability of rural communities to support
their own population.
In the 1930s, although the views of politicians varied, one concern shared by all was that falling birthrates meant a serious weakening or imminent collapse of individual nations,
if not European society altogether.
In the Middle East, some important anticolonial and nationalist movements were successful,
including the founding of an independent Republic of Turkey, led by
Mustafa Kemal (or Atatürk).
Mohandas Gandhi fought against British colonial rule of India by practicing civil disobedience.
Mustafa Kemal dramatically changed Turkish society in the 1920s by modernizing Turkish society by adopting elements of Western economics and culture.
In 1929, Joseph Stalin intended to end the Soviet Union's backwardness with an ambitious
industrial expansion program called the
Five-Year Plan.
When Stalin called for the “liquidation of the kulaks,” he was referring to prosperous peasants and anyone who opposed his plans to end independent farming.
Stalin's use of terror tactics to assure fulfillment of the production quotas in the 1930s made lying, such as the falsification of production figures, and corruption permanent
features of the Soviet Communist system.
Purges and hard labor and mistreatment in the Gulags killed, annually, approximately one million
In the 1930s, men such as Alfred Hugenberg exemplified the unprecedented power of the new media magnates over politics and public opinion.
Who said “The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their intelligence is small”? Adolf Hitler
When new elections were held in March 1932, prior to Hitler's appointment as chancellor,
the Nazis
increased their share of the vote, but again failed to win a majority of Reichstag seats.
Hitler came to power in 1933 after conservatives had to choose between Hitler and his Communist rival for chancellor and
chose Hitler, believing he would be easier to manipulate.
Hitler used which of the following events as an excuse to suspend civil liberties and launch a
brutal crackdown on his political opponents?
the burning of the Reichstag
Hitler's order for the assassination of Ernst Roehm, which also resulted in the deaths of
hundreds of SA leaders and other personal enemies, is known as the
Night of the Long Knives.
The 1935 legislation that deprived German Jews of citizenship, defined Jewishness
according to ancestry rather than belief, and prohibited marriages between Jews and other
Germans was called the
Nuremberg Laws.
The night of November 9–10, 1938, became known as Kristallnacht, Night of Broken Glass
(or crystal), because
of the windows smashed during the Nazis' overnight destruction of thousands of
Jewish-owned shops and some two hundred synagogues.
Hitler's policies in the 1930s differed from those he would adopt by about 1941; in the
earlier years, he had
sought the emigration or expulsion of Jews rather than their extermination.
In the late 1930s, who helped convince the Swedish government of the importance of
providing financial assistance, medical benefits, and child-care services to mothers and
Alva Myrdal
In 1936–1937, Léon Blum headed an antifascist Popular Front in France, which collapsed
within the year when
the left withdrew its support in response to the government's refusal to assist the
republicans in the civil war in Spain.
An antifascist coalition government such as the French Popular Front would have been
impossible in democratic countries before 1936 because
Stalin had just reversed his ban on international Communists participating in coalition
In his 1931 social encyclical, Pope Pius XI (r. 1922–1939) condemned the failure of modern societies to provide their citizens with the moral and
material conditions necessary for a decent life.
The Japanese attempted to portray their aggression in Asia as freeing the region from Western imperialism.
One aspect of both Mussolini's and Hitler's political ideologies that proved appealing to
many Western leaders and helped to encourage appeasement later was their
virulent anti-Communism.
In 1936, both France and Britain led Mussolini to believe that they would do little to stop
fascist aggression when they
thwarted an attempt by some members of the League of Nations to impose a rigorous
embargo on Italy following Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia.
When Spanish republicans overthrew their authoritarian king in 1931, they missed a chance
to secure crucial popular support and weaken the opposition when they failed to
enact land redistribution.
Hitler's annexation of (or merger with) Austria was called Anschluss.
Historians have criticized the Munich Pact of 1938 because it gave Germany more time to build its military and gave Hitler the idea that western
European nations would not try to stop his aggrandizement.
The Nazi–Soviet Pact signed on August 23, 1939, stunned the world because it created a nonaggression agreement between fascist Germany and the Communist Soviet
Union, despite their ideological hatred of each other.
The relentless German bombing of British cities in the summer of 1940 is known as the battle of Britain.
Hitler tried to justify his 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union by calling that country the “center of judeo-bolshevism.”
The concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau shows that the camps were part of a larger
German war strategy because, in addition to being a place of mass murder,
its prisoners worked to make vital war products, such as synthetic rubber and fuel.
One indication of racism in America during World War II was that citizens of Japanese descent were forced to give up their homes and businesses and
relocate to internment camps.
In the face of total military defeat by late 1944, Hitler continued to beseech the Germans to
fight on, believing that
the Germans, failing to secure victory, deserved to die.
The Manhattan Project planned to develop atomic bombs.
In October 1944, Churchill's meeting with Stalin on the postwar distribution of territories
disturbed Roosevelt because
their agreements violated the U.S. government's promotion of collective security, selfdetermination,
and free trade.
One theme of George Orwell's postwar novel 1984 was that bureaucratic power depended upon manipulation of the public through “newspeak.”