BIO Placement Review

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which of the following is false about sciencetific theories?
a.they have been thoroughly tested
b.they are developed by inductive reasoning
c. used to support observations using deductive reasoning
d.they can either be supported or modified by new observations
e.firmly established and cannot be refuted

which of the following would be least helped by the scientific method?
a.developing more effective high school curricula
b.evaluating the relationship between violence in video games and criminal behavior in teens
c.determining the most effective safety products for automobiles
d.formulating public policy on euthanasia
e.comparing the effectiveness of two potential antibiotics
what is a controlled experiment?
one variable is manipulated while others are held constant
Name 3 characteristics of living organisms
organized structure, growth and reproduction, maintenance and homeostasis
What is the maintenance of internal conditions of an organism within a certain boundary range?
organize organ system, tissue, organ and cell in the correct order
cell, tissue, organ, organ system
which kingdom possess uni-cellular plant-like and animal-like species?
How are the bacteria and eukarya domains distinguished?
in bacteria there is an absence of membranous organelles, sch as a nucleus
what is the basic difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
prokaryotic lacks a nucleus
if the atomic number of carbon is 6, its nucleus must contain..
6 protons, 0 electrons
a chemical compound that releases OH- into a solution is called
a base
what happens when hydrochloric acid is added to water
the HCL molecules separate into H+ and CL-
name 3 properties of water molecules that enables water to function as a moderator of temperature for living organisms
high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, high heat of fusion
the formation of ions involve..
gain or loss of electrons
a covalent bond is formed when..
two atoms share electrons
what type of chemical reaction results in the breakdown of organic polymers into their respective subunits
Name a reaction that requires the removal of water to form a covalent bond
peptide ----> amino acids
which of the following refers to the amino acid sequence of proteins
What is not a feature of a prokaryotic cell
A nuclear membrane
after being formed by ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum what is the next organelle a protein may be transported to?
Golgi apparatus
which type of cell does not produce cell walls
animal cells
You measure the concentration of a polar molecule inside and outside the cell and find that the concentration of this molecule inside and outside the cell and find that the concentration is gradually increasing inside the cell. you also measure the concentration of ATP inside the cell and find that it is dropping. which process are you observing?
Active transport
the movement of water across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration is best described as..
what is least likely to degrade a protein?
name the energy generating process that occurs in almost all living organisms
at the end of glycolysis, the original carbons of the glucose molecules form..
two molecules of pyruvate
the oxygen we breathe in is used in
electron transport system
if a DNA sample contains 13% adenine, what percentage of the same contains cytosine
for the mutation to affect the evolution of an animal species, it must occur in what
mutations, crossing over and random assortment of parental chromosomes during meiosis are examples of what
genetic variation among offspring
if a sperm cell has 6 chromosomes, its comes from an animal whose somatic cells have ___ chromosomes
the haploid number of chromosomes for humans is
name the correct sequence of stages in the cell cycle
G1, S, G2, M
true or false: the genetic information in almost all of your body cells is identical
what is the importance of crossing over in meiosis
it ensures the daughter cells have different genetic material
at which phase of meiosis is each chromosome composed of a single chromatid
Anaphase 11
which of the classes of RNA moleculs carries the genetic information as it is needed for the construction of a protein
Messenger RNA
what occurs in the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell
transcription and replication of genetic material
what are alleles
alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue or brown eyes
an individual who is a carrier for a sex-linked trait, such hemophilia ____
shows the dominant phenotype
an individual with a dominant phenotype is crossed with a individual with a recessive phenotype and 4 of 9 offspring show the recessive phenotype. what is the genotype of the parent with the dominant phenotype?
which of the following is not true according to mendels law of segregation
a.each individual contains 2 factors for each trait factor must be dominant and one recessive
c.factors separate from each other during the formation of gametes
d.each gamete contains one copy of each factor
e.fertilization restores 2 copies of each factor
which of the following can evolve

gene variations i natural populations develop due to
random mutation of the DNA
natural selection can act on a trait only if the trait is
a primary source of scientific result is
articles in peer-reviewed journals
name 2 universal characteristics of life
the ability to grow and the ability to reproduce using DNA
what level of organization is the most inclusive
the first cells are likely to refer to
true or false: the atoms of a single element do not have the same number of electrons
the second orbital shell of an atom can hold how many electrons
a chemical compound that releases H+ into a solution is
an acid
a neutral solution has
equal amount of H+ and OH-
what determines the cohesiveness of water molecules
hydrogen bonds
what bond is easily disrupted in water solutions
large biological molecules are synthesized by the removal of
name the 4 most common elements found in living organisms
hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen
if a reaction results in one molecule losing an electron and a second molecule gaining that electron, the electron donor is said to be
a molecule of glucose has the molecular formula
C6 H12 O6 therefore it has ___ atoms
a lipid is a polymer made up of what kind of monomers
fatty acids and glycerol
how are amino acids and proteins related
proteins are made up of chains of amino acids
fish sperm contains mostly the male fish's DNA. if tested chemically, there would be relatively high amounts of..
nitrogenous bases, sugar and phosphate groups
true or false: prokaryotes have circular pieces of DNA within their nuclei
chloroplasts do what in plant cells
are the site of conversion of light energy into chemical energy
true or false: cells walls have many small holes
true or false: cells walls only occur in plant cells
the movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of high to low concentration is best described as
passive transport
the pH of lysosomes is likely to be
in a phospholipid bylayer the phosphate heads are oriented towards the ___ of the cell or toward the ____
exterior, cytoplasm
if enzymes were used during a reaction, what could be added to a system to make the reaction occur faster
a small increase in heat energy
what process occurs in the cytosol
during what cycle are the products of glycolysis further broken down, generating addition ATP and NADH molecules
Krebs Cycle
the anaerobic break down of glucose is called
what is the significance of the conversion of pyruvate to lactate during fermentation
NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
if a species contains 40% guanine in its DNA, what is the percentage of adenine that it would contain
true or false: A+C = G+T
True or false: replication occurs as each base is paired with one exactly like it
false ................................................................................
a mini-gee hase the base sequence TACCCGTGCACG if the T at the beginning of the sequence is deleted, what will be the consequence
all of the codons after that point will be changed
what point mutation would be likely to have a catastrophic effect
a base deletion near the start of the coding sequence
a cell formed through fertilization
list the correct sequence of mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
what does not occur in telophase
the centromeres split apart
during which stage of meiosis does crossing-over occur
prophase 1
prior to protein synthesis what does DNA do
serves as a template for the production of mRNA
which class of RNA molecules carries the amino acids that are added to the growing polypeptide chain
transfer RNA
the process of converting the "message" of mRNA into a sequence of amino acids is called
traits controlled by sex-inked recessive genes are expressed more often in males because
the male has only one copy of these genes
a human male has ___ chromosomes with ___ sex chromosomes
46, XY
true or false: males have two copies of the allele for x-linked characteristics, but females only have one
true or false: evolutions is responsible for the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
define science
both a body of knowledge and an intellectual activity encompassing observation, description, experimentation and explanation of natural phenomena
what is the control group in an experiment
a sample taken through all experimental steps except the one being tested
what group is most abundant in terms of numbers of individuals
which of the following is a multicellular organism
b.cardiovascular system
d.forest ecosystem
define metabolism
an organisms ability to use energy
a cell that lacks membranous organelles is
a prokaryotic cell
true or false: electrons are negatively charged
why can water absorb and store a large amount of heat while increasing only a few degrees in temperate
the heat must first be used to break the hydrogen bonds rather than raise the temperature
what provides some energy storage for animals
true or false: triglycerides are polar and hydrophyllic
false, nonpolar and hydrophobic
which of the following is not an organic molecule
b.nucleic acid
d.carbon dioxide
true or false: bacteria cell walls are composed of the same material as plant cell walls
the _____ allows selected molecules to pass into and out of the cell
plasma membrane
if a living plant were moved from fresh water to salt water what would occur
the plants cells would lose water
which phrase does not describe one of the functions of proteins of the plasma/cell membrane
a.forming a channel through the membrane
b.initiating the replication of genetic material
c.binding to a substance to carry it through the membrane
d.acting as a receptor for substances outside the cell
e.maintaining Na+/K+ balance in cell
name 2 things ribosomes do
they contain RNA and proteins, they synthesize proteins
what are the hair-like projections that line our respiratory tract and cover one-celled paramecia
what does lactose intolerance result from
lack of hydrolysis of lactose
which molecule attaches to pyruvate after glycolysis and before krebs cycle
what is the significance of the conversion of pyruvate to lactate during fermentation
NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
the first process in breaking down glucose is
what molecules can be modified to enter the citric acid/krebs cycle
pyruvate, amino acids, fatty acids
because one strand of the double-stranded helix is found in each daughter cell, the replication process is called
in a DNA molecule, base pairing occurs between
adenine and thymine
during which phase of the eukaryotic cell does DNA and chromosome replication occur
the S phase of interphase
when a cell divides via mitosis what happens
each daughter cell receives nearly a perfect copy of the parents cells genetic information
meiotic cell division occurs in the ___ and results in the production of ___
Germ-line, gametes
in the comparison of a DNA molecule to a twisted ladder, the upright sides of the ladder are ___
deoxyribose linked to phosphate
true or false: matings between individuals with dominant phenotypes cannot produce offspring with recessive phenotypes
true or false: all mutations are harmful for the organism
what is the pathway of information flow in a cell
DNA ---> RNA--->protein
which class of RNA molecules is a part of the process of transcription
Messenger RNA
which of the classes of RNA molecules is/are a part of the process of translation
ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA
all of the following are directly involved in translation except
c.amino acids
the human appendix is an example of a
vestigial structure