Berenice Ch 6

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Benign Tumor

tumor that is not life threatening and does not recur, but can cause problems by placing pressure on adjacent structures"Be-Nice"
benign tumor made up of muscle tissue


means harmful, tending to spread, becoming progressively worse & life threatening"malicious or mean"

Carcinoma in situ
a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues
invasive malignancy
grows and spreads into adjacent tissues

verb that describes the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another.


noun that describes the new cancer site that results from the spreading process. It may be within the same body system or in another body system at a distance from the primary site


the process of classifying tumors with respect to how far the disease has progressed, the potential for its responding to therapy and the patients prognosis.

malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue. (epithelial tissue forms the protective covering for all of the internal & external surfaces of the body

these tumors tend to infiltrate & produce metastases that may affect any organ or part of the body

any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue
a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissue

Connective Tissues

these include hard tissues (bones & cartilage) soft tissue (fat, tissues surrounding & supporting organs) & liquid tissues (blood & lymph)
Hard Tissue Sarcoma

This arises from cartilage

malignant tumor usual involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis or knee
a malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue

Kaposi's Sarcoma

this form of cancer may affect the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, & internal organs. It is frequently associated with HIV

*a general term applied to malignancies that develop in the lymphatic system.
*the involved tissues include the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, & bone marrow.
Hodgkins Lymphomaaka Hodgkins Diseaseaka HL distinguished by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, which are large cancerous lymphocytes. HL is staged using Roman Numerals from I to IV

non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
*any lymphoma OTHER THAN Hodgkins Lymphoma
*this disease is described as 3 types: low-grade(growing slowly), intermediate-grade (growing moderately), & high grade (growing rapidly)

in this disease, the cells of the lymphatic system divide & grow w/out any order or control. This causes tumors to develop in different locations on the body & these cancer cells can also spread to other organs
Invasive Ductal CarcinomaakaInfiltrating Ductal Carcinoma starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct, & invades fatty breast tissue. This form of cancer accounts for the majority of all breast cancers

Ductal Carcinoma in situ
breast cancer at its earliest stage (stage 0) before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct. At this stage, the cure rate is nearly 100%
Invasive Lobular CarcinomaakaInfiltrating Lobular Carcinoma
cancer that starts in the milk gland (lobules), breaks through the wall of the gland, & invades the fatty tissue of the breast. Once the cancer reaches the lymph nodes it ran rapidly spread to distant parts of the body.

Male Breast Cancer

this type of cancer can occur in the small amount of breast tissue that is normally present in men. They types of cancers are similar to those occurring in women
Stage I Breast Cancer the cancer is no longer than 2 centimeters (about one inch) & has not spread outside the breast.

Stage IIBreast Cancer

Any one of the following may be true:
Cancer is no larger than 2 cm but has spread to the axillary lymph nodes
is between 2 and 5 cm & may or may not have spread to the axillary lymph nodes
is larger than 5 cm but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes
Stage IIIABreast Cancer Either of the following is true:
cancer is smaller than 5 cm & has spread to the axillary lymph nodes & the lymph nodes are attached to each other or to other structures.
cancer is larger than 5 cm & has spread to the axillary lymph nodes

Stage IIIBBreast Cancer
Either of the following is true:
cancer has spread to tissues near the breast (skin or chest wall, including the ribs and muscles of the chest)
cancer has spread to lymph nodes inside the chest wall along the breastbone

Stage IVBreast Cancer
cancer has spread to other organs of the body, most often the bones, lungs, liver or brain. Or, the cancer has spread locally to the skin and lymph nodes inside the neck, near the collarbone
Breast self-examination mammograms&professional palpation
procedures for early detection of breast cancer
Bi= pertaining to lifeopsy=view of
the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm of establish a diagnosis

Needle Breast Biopsy
a technique in which an x-ray guided needle is used to remove small samples of tissue from the breast. It is less painful, less disfiguring (no scaring), & requires a shorter recovery time than surgical biopsy

Lymph Node Dissection
a diagnostic procedure in which all of the lymph nodes in a major group are removed to determine the spread of cancer
Axillary Lymph Node Dissection(ALND) diagnostic procedure performed to diagnose the spread of breast cancer

Sentinel Node

the 1st lymph node to come into contact with cancer cells as they leave the organ of origination and start spreading into the rest of the body

Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB)
in this, the sentinel node is ID'd & is the only node removed for the biopsy. If the cancer is not spread, this spares the remaining nodes in that group
surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and a margin of surrounding normal tissue
surgical removal of an entire breast
Modified Radical Mastectomy
surgical removal of the entire breast & axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm
3 most common forms of cancer treatments Surgery, Chemotherapy & radiation therapy

the use of chemical agents and drugs in combinations selected to destroy malignant cells and tissues
anti=againstne/o =newplast=growthtic=pertaining to
medication that blocks the development, growth, or proliferation of malignant cells
proliferation=to increase rapidly
Cytotoxic drugs used in chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

treatment of cancers through the use of X-rays. Goal is to destroy the cancer while sparing the healthy tissues
the use of radioactive materials in contact with, or implanted into, the tissues to be treated.

radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body.
(with 3 dimensional computer imaging it is possible to aim doses more precisely)