AP Human Geography: Chapter 8: Political Geography

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Centrifugal (adj.) Moving or tending to move away from a center.
Centripetal (adj.) Moving or tending to move toward a center.
Devolution (n.) The transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration.
Gerrymandering (v.) Dividing unfairly to one’s advantage.
What is Mackinder's Heartland Theory? The world can be ultimately ruled by land-based power, not sea power.
Nation (n.) A group of people considered as one based on a sense of shared culture and history, and who seek some degree of self government.
Nation-state (n.) A politically organized area in which a nation and state occupy the same space.
Sovereingty (n.) Supreme power or authority.
State (n.) A politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government.
What are the 3 factors to Wallerstein's World Systems Theory? 1. The world economy has one market and a global division of labor. 2. Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy. 3. The world economy has a three-tier structure.
True or False: In Europe prior to the mid-1600s, sovereignty was expressed over people rather than over a territory. False. Sovereignty was expressed over territory rather than people.
True or False: Once a body of people is incorporated within a political boundary they are a nation. False. A body of people decide whether they are a nation or not by considering themselves as one/united or not.
True or False: Belgium is an example of a nation-state where nation and state coincide with boundaries. True. The definition of a nation-state clearly proves that a nation and state occupy the same space or boundaries.
True or False: According to Hartshorne, centrifugal forces work to build a nation-state. False. Centrifugal forces work to divide a nation-state.
True or False: As a federal state Nigeria vests judicial power in the various states. This is illustrated by the prevalence of Sharia law in Nigeria's Muslim north. True. The state in Nigeria's Muslim north have legal systems based on traditional Islamic laws.
True or False: The Rio Grande River is a geometric boundary separating the U.S. and Mexico. False. The Rio Grande River is a physical-political boundary between the U.S. and Mexico.
True or False: Devolution is affecting many countries in the world today. True. Devolution occurs from mainly cultural, economic, and spatial factors; therefore, it is difficult to avoid devolution.
True or False: Gerrymandering refers to electoral redistricting in order to gain a political advantage. True. Gerrymandering is a term describing the redistricting for an advantage.
True or False: Disputes over water (e.g. Syria, Turkey, etc.) are examples of allocational boundary disputes. True. Allocational boundary disputes deal with disputes that are resource based, such as, water, oil, or natural gas.
True or False: The League of Nations intervened to aid Ethiopia when attacked by Italy in the mid-1930s. False. The League of Nations had the opportunity to intervene, but they didn't take action.
True or False: Mackinder's heartland theory of geopolitics maintained that world domination would be exercised through sea power. False. Mackinder concluded that a land-based power would ultimately rule the world.
True or False: NAFTA is a North American supranational association for mutual economic benefit. True. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an agreement that joins Canada, the U.S., and Mexico.
True or False: Critical geopolitics emphasizes the analysis of diplomatic and power relations between various state groupings. False. REDO
True or False: Huntington's thesis in The Clash of Civilization is similar to Wallerstein's view that international relations are reducible to economic rather than cultural factors. REDO