Medical Microbiology

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The most common causes of NEONATAL meningitis 1. Group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae); 2. Escherichia coli; 3. Listeria monocytogenes;
The most common cause of pneumonia in adults; the second most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults; the most common cause of otitis media in children PNEUMOCOCCUS (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
The organism that accounts for over 80% of the suppurative diseases: Staphylococcus aureus
The only gram-positive bacterium with ENDOTOXIN (LPS) Listeria monocytogenes
Gram-negative bacteria without ENDOTOXIN Bacteroides fragilis
Bacteria with low virulence but are most often associated with SURGERY Bacteroides fragilis
Microbes that cause ATYPICAL PNEUMONIA Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pneumoniae, viruses
The number one cause of bacterial bronchitis & pneumonia in teenagers & young adults Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Bacteria that often cause sepsis in immunocompromised patients Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae
The three most common causes of diarrhea in the world: Campylobacter jejuni; Enterotoxigenic E. coli; Rotavirus
Facultative Intracellular Bacteria: (cause systemic infection after phagocytosis) Listeria monocytogenes; Salmonella typhi; Yersinia pestis; Francisella tularensis; Legionella pneumophila; Mycobacterium spp.; Brucella spp.;
Bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites Chlamydia; Chlamydia spp.; Rickettsias: (Rickettsia spp.; Rochalimaea quintana; Coxiella brunetii; Bartonella henselae; Ehrlichia chaffeensis)
Rickettsia 1. requires an arthropod vector; 2. replicates freely in cytoplasm; 3. tropism for endothelial cells; 4. Most cause rashes, high fevers, and bad headaches
Chlamydia 1. No arthropod vector; 2. Replicates in endosomes (inclusion bodies); 3. Tropism for columnar epithelium; 4. Different symptoms; infect eyes, genitals, and lungs
Bacteria that commonly cause URETHRITIS Neisseria gonorrheae; Chlamydia trachromatis; Ureaplasma urealyticum;
The leading cause of preventable blindness in the world Chlamydia trachomatis
The two most common causes of STD in the USA Chlamydia trachomatis; Neisseria gonorrheae
DD of STD; Chancroid Haemophilus ducreyi; *painful genital ulcer *unilateral painful swollen inguinal *lymph nodes, suppurative
DD of STD: Syphilis Treponema pallidum *painless ulcer *bilateral adenopathy, painless, non-*suppurative
DD of STD: Herpes Herpes simmplex virus 1 and 2 *lesions start as vesicles (blisters), *resemble CHANCROID when they break *painful *usually accompanied by systemic symptoms (myalgias and fevers)
DD of STD: Lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis; *painless enlarged inguinal nodes similar to those of chancroid *development of suppurative inguinal lymph nodes is slower; primary ulcer disappears before the nodes enlarge
DD of STD: Transplacental Acquired Infections: (ToRCHeS) TOxoplasma Rubella Cytomegalovirus HErpes Syphilis
The RULE OF SIXES for Treponema pallidum infection: *6 axial filaments *6 week incubation *6 weeks for the ulcer to heal *6 weeks after the unlcer heals, secondary syphilis develops *6 weeks for secondary syphilis to resolve *66% of latents stage patients have resolution (no TERTIARY SYPHILIS) *6 years to develop tertiary syphilis SEXual transmission