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Dementia requires evidence of impairment of ______________ and at least one other cognitive impairment such as ____________ , _______________, _____________or disturbance of executive functioning. Dementia requires evidence of impairment of memory and at least one other cognitive impairment such as aphasia (language disturbance), apraxia (impaired ability to carry out motor activities) or agnosia (inability to recognize objects) or disturbance of executive functioning (planning, organizing, abstract thinking.)
Communication patterns can be described as either __________________ or _______________. Communication patterns can be described as either symmetrical or complementary. Symmetrical = partners equal. Complementary = dominant and subordinate roles (e.g. teacher and student).
When your supervisee treats the supervisor like the client is treating the supervisee, this is called ______________________. Parallel process.
When we think about how new information relates to an existing memory we are using _________________. Elaborative rehearsal.
Neuroleptics are used to treat _______________________. They work best one which type of symptoms? Neuroleptics are anti-psychotic medications that work best on positive symptoms.
Propranolol (aka ____________) is a ____________ medication. It is used to treat __________, ___________, and __________. Itís also useful for _______________. Side effects include _____________, ______________, _____________, __________, and _________ Propranolol (inderal) is a beta-blocker used to treat migraines, hypertension and essential tremors. It is also useful for anxiety. Side effects include bracycardia (slow heart rate), depression, fatigue, hypotension, and sexual dysfunction.
Aggressive children tend to focus on cues at the [end/beginning] of a social interaction. End.
According to Piaget, preoperational children focus on one aspect of a situation and ignore others. This is called... Centration.
Needs assessment (or needs analysis) Done to determine if and what kind of training is needed in an organization.
Job evaluation The relative worth of a job.
Job analysis Describe the requirements of a job.
Leniency bias Tendency to go easy on all ratees. Helps to use forced choice.
Serial position effect The primacy and recency effects.
Retroactive inhibition When a new experience interferes with the recall of a previous memory.
Method of loci Memory (mnemonic) device in which you imagine items associated with locations.
Referent power When someone is attracted to you or wants to be like you, you have referent power. E.g. Therapist client relationship.
Coercive power Based on your ability to punish.
Reward power Based on your ability to reward.
Legitimate power Based on "valid authority" (e.g.police).
Expert power Based on the perception that you have special knowledge.
What is the correlation of intelligence among siblings? .49
As we age, which type of intelligence is more stable, verbal or performance? Verbal.
At what age does Performance IQ begin to decline? In the 20s.
What should you tell a client who is seeking hypnosis to recovery memories of abuse? 1) Not appropriate due to risk of false memories. 2) Could jeopardize future legal actions taken against the abuser.
In a court ordered evaluation you must ________ but you don't need _______. You must tell the person (child or adult) of the purpose, methods, and intended use of the testing. But you don't need to get informed consent.
P value (aka alpha level) Probability that the null hypothesis is true and your result is simply a chance variation. Probabilty that your finding are just random and not due to an actually relationship between variables.
Confounding variable Accounts for variance but its not relevant to your research.
Criterion contamination Occurs when raters are aware of ratees scores on the predictor. This knowledge influences the ratings.
Suicide attempts in adolescents are higher in... females older adolescents rather than younger (though this may be changing) parental separation/divorce poor social skills poor academic acheivement NOT related to IQ.
Korsakoff's sydrome is caused by what? What is the most common symptom? Alcohol-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disodrer. *Caused by thiamine deficiency. *Common cause of amnesia. *Can impact ability to learn new info (anterograde) and retrograde. *Biggest impact on recent memories.
What is the best predictor of future job performance for people diagnosed with schizophrenia? Past job history.
Central goal of Gestalt Therapy: Increase awareness of self, environment and the self-environment boundary.
Hippocampus is responsible for... memory consolidation (STM to LTM). Involved in explicit memory, recall of facts and events.
Explicit memory Recall of facts and events
Medial temporal area is involved in what kinds of memory? Long-term memory: semantic, spatial and episodic.
Parents of aggressive children use discipline that is inconsistent and often not associated with the child's behavior.
Which of the following can NOT be used to measure perceptual abilities in a 3-4 month old baby: 1) head turning 2) sucking 3) reaching 4) heart rate 1) head turning
On Holland's types, what does it mean to be highly differentiated? Score high on only 1 type.
Super viewed "career maturity" as: Reaching the task of your developmental stage. 5 stages: 1) Growth (to 15 years) 2) Exploration (15-24y) 3) Estabishment (25-44y) 4) Maintenance (45-64y) 5) Decline (65+)
Identical elements Learning transfers best to similar situations. This idea is employed in job training.
Raven's Colored Progress Matrices Non-verbal IQ test for ages 5-11. Okay for non-English speaking kids.
Police have a warrant out for your client for grand theft, they want your records, what should you do? Say no and tell your client. Encourage client to turn himself in.
Protocol analysis Qualitative research technique inw hich the researcher makes interpretations about participants' stated thoughts on a subject.
Retrospective debriefing When subjects, who are working on a problem, are asked how they got the solution.
Tertiary prevention Designed to prevent recurrence. E.g. rehab programs in prisons.
Secondary prevention Early detection of problems before it's a full-blown problem.
Primary prevention Preventing problems before they occur.
Best prognosis in schizophrenia among.. women, late onset, positive symptoms.
Prospective memory Remembering to do something in the future. E.g. take the cookies out of the oven in 15 minutes.
Voluntary movements are controlled by which part of the brain? Basal ganglia
Somatosensory functions are controlled by.. the parietal lobe
Common side effects of ritalin (methylphenidate) (4) Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, insomnia, and tachycardia.
T or F: Children under 2 cannot recall past events. False. By the end of the first year, children can recall at least some aspects of past events.
Transformational leaders Emphasize change. Motivate by appealing to higher order needs. Good listeners, good communicators (use vivid language, analogies).
Transactional leaders Focus on stability in the workplace. Motivate through reward and punishment. Don't try to innovate.
Which type of work schedule results in greatest job satisfaction but no changes in absenteeism or productivity? Compressed (e.g. 4/40).
Which type of work schedule results in improved productiveity, decreased absenteeism, and improved job satisfaction? Flextime.
What are the stages of Helms White Racial Identity Development Model? 1) Contact (ignorance of differences) 2) Disintegration (moral conflict due to inequities) 3) Reintegration (whites better than minorities) 4) Pseudo-Independence (dissatisfaction with 3) 5) Immersion-Emmersion (embrace whiteness without rejecting minorities.) 6) Autonomy (internalizes non-racist identity.)
Equity theory We want to get as much out of the work we put in as our co-workers. (I.e. equal input/output ratio)
Fiedler's Contingency Theory Successful leaders have a style that matches the demands of the situation. Believed that leadership style was fixed, not flexible.
Frame-of-reference training Helps reduce rater biases on performance appraisals. Accomplished by getting the raters to focus on certain characteristics that indicate good job performance.
Prognosis for tardive dyskinesia May initially increase when the neuroleptic drug is withdrawn, but will eventually decrease. Previously thought to be irreversible.
Outcome of ethnic match in psychotherapy Sue et al 1991: improves outcome and reduces premature termination for Asians-Americans and Mexican-Americans but not African-Americans.
Negative punishment Taking away a stimulus with the goal of reducing a response. E.g. time out.
When you get close to an approach-avoidance goal you: Both the positive and negative aspects seem more prominent, but the negative aspects will be even more prominent. E.g. approaching the licensing exam.
Trend analysis Needs quantitative IV in order to identify trends. Can be linear or non-linear.
Borderline intellectual functioning IQ 71 to 84. Between 1 and 2 standard deviations below the mean.
Social referencing Looking to others to know what to do. Seen as a sign of attachment between child and parent.
Minority Identity Development (MID) model (Atkinson, Morten, Sue, 1994) 5 stages Conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and synergetic atriculation. Changes in acculturation/relationship to own culture.
Minority adolscents are more likely than white adolescents to be in which stage of ethnic identity development? Foreclosure. This is when you commit to an ethnic identity without knowing what it means.
Have others around while we work can improve our performance. Why? And what is this called? Increased arousal. Social Facilitation. It can also hurt performance on tasks that require lower arousal.
A common reason for suicide in the elderly Poor physical health.
"Most ominous" warning sign of suicide in adolescents Giving away prized possessions.
Age of onset of Conduct Disorder is related to symptoms and prognosis in what way? Younger age of onset = more aggressive, more likely to continue with aggression into adulthood.
A drawback of biodata forms Lack face validity. Ask questions that applicants don't see as relevant and aren't motivated to answer accurately.
Super's Career Rainbow represents Nine major life roles that have an impact on career choice (e.g. sutdnet, parent, spouse..)
Tension headaches Begin in the frontal or occipital area and move to a bilateral dull ache.
What is the most common ethical issue encountered by psychologists? Confidentiality.
Masters and Johnson found that education, training in communication and sensate focus helps with... Premature ejaculation.
What is the most common type of dementia over the age of 65? Alzheimer's type. 20% of those over age 85 have it.
Brainstorming is more effective if done [alone/in a group] Alone. You'll get more creativity when 4 people brainstorm alone than if they do it in a group.
Herzberg's two-factor theory Certain factors (hygiene factors) cause dissatisfaction. Motivator factors cause satisfaction.
Apraxia involves damage to... the frontal and/or parietal lobe.
True or false: apraxia is the inability to carry out purposeful movements and it is related to paralysis, cognitive impairment and sensory loss. The first part of the statement is true, but it is NOT related to paralysis, cognitive impairment or sensory loss.
Huntington's disease invovles degeneration of several areas of the brain, including... basal ganglia.
According to Beck, suicide risk is heightened by hopelessness and... poor problem solving skills.
Reciprocal inhibition Pairing feared object (or imagined object) with relaxation.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) leads to memory deficits. What do we know about these deficits? They are largely reversible but some personal information (autobiographical memories) may take months to recover.
A quality-oriented business culture (as opposed to a traditionally oriented business culture) emphasizes Cross training, continuing education, long-term achievement, and rewards group achievement.
Successful resolution of Erikson's final stage involves... finding a sense of meaning. (Ego integrity vs. despair.)
What impact does Methylphenidate (Ritalin) have on kids who DON'T have ADHD? It increases their attention span.
The primary impact of the first few sessions of therapy is.. a increase in hopefulness.
According to Bowen, family members resort to __________ in order to decrease tension. Triangulation. Two family members focus their attention on a third member.
Method of loci is a memory technique in which... you pair images of objects you want to remember with places you are familiar with.
Children with learning disorders are _________ as adults. more likely to have psychological problems
Work-family conflict is bothersome to everyone, but has a bigger impact on.. women.
Research has shown that workers satisfaction with their leader is determined by level of consideration.
Right-hemiplegia is likely accompanied by _____________ symptoms. Left side of brain impacted, so: speech-language deficits. Left side damage = slow, cautious style.
A recent study on therapy outcome for children and adolescents suggested... adolescents > children, especially among girls.
According to Bandura, behavior has funcitonal value... when you expect it to have good consequences.
People with Narcissistic PD rely on which defense mechanisms? Repression, rationalization, projection.
In terms of memory deficits, what is the difference between depression and dementia? Demential involves both recall and recognition problems. Depression only involves recall.
The best way to control aggressive behavior in children is... social skills training.
Lithium can induce tremors. What can you do? Lower the dosage. Or, add a beta-blocker (e.g. Inderal.)
Biofeedback is designed to work on the __________ nervous system. Parasympathetic.
What are the symptoms of acute vs. chronic hypoglycemia. Acute looks like panic. Chronic looks like depression, psychosis, personality shift.
Tonic-clonic seizures are associated with cognitive decline.
Overcorrection is a behavioral technique designed to eliminate undesirable behaviors and promote more desirable behaviors, First, the person must make up for the prior mistake (restitution) then they are guided to change (guided movement) and use positive practice.
In terms of moral development, both Piaget and Kohlberg believed.. invarient sequence, related to cognitive development, related to peer interaction. NEITHER believed that development varied across cultures at the early stages of development (Kohlberg thought it might vary at later stages.)
ADHD symptoms in children vary across situations. When are they typically worst? When might they not be present? Worst when sustained attention is needed. May be minimal when the child is under strict control, rewarded frequently or in a novel setting.
Workers find __________ schedule the least stressful. Flextime.
Separation anxiety begins at ___ (age) and rises dramatically until the age of _____. 8 months to 18 months.
Hypnosis is contraindicated with people who have trouble giving up control, who have difficulty with trust, and paranoid patients.
Difference between ethics and values? Ethics are standards for practice while values are beliefs about right and wrong.
Implosive therapy involves... imaginal exposure to a feared stimulus, at maximum intensity.
If you have received a subpoena for records you must... arrive at the stated place and time with the records. The judge will determine the issue of privilege.
Shrinkage means.. that when a predictor test is tried with another sample, after only being used with a validation sample, it is likely to be weaker predictor.
Situational triggers (e.g. life stress) is at greater impact on bipolar episodes in the [early/later] course of the disorder? Early. First mood episodes are often evironmentally triggered.
What is most likely to be helpful in getting a group member to self-disclose? Other group members self-disclosing.
Behavior therapist likely to view anxiety as a result of.. Classical conditioning is associated with involuntary responses (like anxiety.)
What's true of client-therapist racial/ethnic match? Does not, per se, have a strong impact. Hoewver, it does interact with other variables. Af-Am with cultural mistrust of Whites do poorly with a white therapist. Whites therapists own level of racial identity development is a factor. Helps to bring it up early in treatment.
The area of the brain that regulates teh sleep/wake cycle Reticular formation. It consists of the descending reticular activating system (DRAS) that diminishes arousal responses at the onset of sleep. The ascending reticular activating system screens sensory information during slepe and arouses the brain when information related to survival must be processed.
According to psychoanalysts mania is a defense against depression.
When is the most common onset of stuttering? 2-7 years.
Stuttering is more common in [males/females] Males (3:1)
According to psychoanalysts, transferance is.. a sign that treatment is having an effect. Discussed so that patient is made aware of it.
Discriminant and convergent validity are types of construct validity
What is chlorpromazine? It's Thorazine. Can cause TD.
What is the nature of the relationship between job satisfaction and job turnover. There is a strong, negative relationship.
To set up a token economy you need.. target behaviors, choice of reinforcers, and a rate of exchange.
The most effective exposure treatment for phobias is [in-vivo or imaginal]. In vivo. The more realistic, the better.
The best predictor of adjustment in the eldery is... Physical health.
If a mother wants you to test her 3-year old's intelligence, what should you tell her? That the test, given at this age, isn't a very valid predictor of future performance.
Schachter's research on obesity found that obese people use __________ cues in determining eating behavior. External cues
The peripheral nervous system is composed of... The somatic nervous system (controls voluntary movement) and the autonomic nervous system (controls organs and glands, largely involuntary).
"Primative core" of the brain is responsible for... breathing, sleeping (basic bodily stuff.)
The "old brain" (limbic system) is responsible for... Basic drives (hunger, thirst) and emotions (rage, fear, pleasure.)
The new brain (cerebral cortex/cerebrum) is responsible for.. Higher cognitive, emotional and motor functions.
The hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain refer to the ______ divisions of the brain. They relate to, but do not have a 1:1 correspondance with the functional divisions of the brain. Anatomical.
Paraplegia is paralysis of _____________ and results from ___________. The lower limbs of the body. Results from the spinal cord being completely cut above the point that the nerves innervating the legs leaves the spinal cord.
Quadriplegia is paralysis of _______ and results from __________. All four limbs. The spinal cord being severed above where the nerves innervating all four limbs leave the spinal cord.
Hemiplegia is __________ and results from ____________. One side of the body (an arm and a leg) is paralyzed. Results from partial severing of spinal cord.
Paresis is ____________. Slight paralysis.
Paresthesia.... Abormal sensations such as numbness, tingling or burning.
Neuromodulators are... neurotransmitters that increase or decrease a neurons sensitivity to other neurotransmitters.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is responsible for ________ in the body. causing muscles to contract.
In the brain, acetylcholine (ACh) is reponsible for... learning/memory. Sexual behavior and sleep.
Loss of acetylcholine receptors is found in ________ disease. Alzheimer's
According to Beck, the tendency to focus on a detail, taken out of context is... Selective abstraction.
Huesmann's 2003 study of exposure to TV violence showed that childhood exposure to TV violence predicts... aggressive behaviors in young adults, both male and female.
T or F: Both male and female teachers are more likely to criticize boys than girls. True. May be due to difficult that male students have to assuming the "student" role (quiet, well-behaved.)
Which type of recording would be best when recording behavior that has no clear beginning and end, and is not easily "countable"? Interval recording. This enables us to see whether or not the behavior occurs during a small interval of time (say 10 seconds every 3 minutes.)
What type of behavioral recording would be best for behaviors that, while not easily "countable" have a clear beginning and end? Duration recording. Allows us to record the duration of the behavior.
What type of behavioral recording would be best for behaviors which are quantifiable (that you can count)? Frequency recording. E.G. number of times a preschooler hits another child.
The belief that unrelated or only slightly related events are actually related. Illusory correlation.
Menopause changes what aspects of sexual functioning? Decreased lubrication and thinning of vaginal walls. Can make sex less comfortable. But doesn't relate to arousal or drive.
The spinal cord is divided into which four regions? cervical (1-8), thoracic (1-12), lumbar(1-5), and sacral (1-5). (can tigers lick sweets?)
More rapid onset of REM sleep, decreased slow wave sleep and increased precentage of REM sleep is associated with... Depression.
Stages of Alzheimers 1 (2-4 years) STM loss, E.g.forgetting where they put things. 2 (2-10 years) loss of explicit memory, difficulty performing complex tasks. 3 (1-3 years) Failure to recognize others, difficulty walking, incontinence.
In structural family therapy, what is it called when two members of a family "gang up" on another? A coalition.
What type of infraction accounts for the greatest amount of malpractice insurance costs? Sexual contact with clients.
T or F: Only 10% or less of Tourette's patients show coprolalia (involuntarily utter obsencities.) True. It's not a common symptom. The common symptoms are motor tics, vocal tics (grunts, barks, clicks). Onset must be before age 18. More common in males.
When two members of a family attack another member, it's called: a coalition
Which violation accounts for the most malpractice insurance costs? Sexual contact with clients.
T or F: Tourette's is more common in women than in men. False. 1-3 times more common in men.
T or F: Tourette's may be diagnosed whether or not the symptoms appear before age 18. False. The symptoms must appear before age 18.
Stage 1 of sleep is characterized by ________ waves. Alpha.
Delta brain waves are found in which stage(s) of sleep? 3 and 4, deep sleep.
Self-perception theory says that we base our self-perception on our __________. behavior. We look at our own behavior to tell us who we are.
Visitation by the noncustodial father, after a divorce, is helpful in terms of behavior and academics, as long as: the father is supportive, authoritative, and has minimal conflict with the mother.
T or F: The perceived barriers to receiving healthcare is the most influential factor in health related decision making. True. It is found to be more influential than perceived benefits, perceived severity or perceived susceptibility.
What's another term of eidetic imagery? Photographic memory.
Neural degeneration in Huntington's Disease is first apparent in the... caudate nucleus.
Who distinguished between fluid and crystallized intelligence? Cattell.
Who proposed that convergent and divergent thinking were elements of intelligence? Guilford.
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome was composed of what three elements: ARE: alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
Mescaline fits into what class of drugs? Hallucinogen.
What's the relationship between therapist experience and client outcome? Moderate, with the strongest relationship when the symptoms are severe.
In Parkinson's disease, what neurotransmitter is responsible for tremors, acetylcholine or dopamine? Dopamine.
Insecure/avoidance attachment is associated with what kinds of parenting? Overstimulating or impatient.
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test involves sorting cards by varying strategies. It's used to measure... Perseveration, abstract reasoning, executive (front lobe) functioning.
Disorganized/disoriented attachment is most strongly associated with... Neglectf/mistreatment.
What are the two neurotransmitters most associated with Alzheimer's disease? Glutamate and acetylcholine.
Presbyopia is most likely to inrease the near point (the shortest distance at which we can focus our eyes) from 4 inches at age 20 to ... at age 60. 48 inches!
Type II errors occur when... the null hypothesis was wrongly retained. That is, there was a difference but the test didn't show it.
Symptoms of memory impairment, faulty judgement and impaired concentration would most likely result from lesion to the... lobe. Temporal. Frontal lobe is involved in concentration and judgement but not memory.
When insurance companies check to see if the practitioner is meeting the requirement of the company, they are doing .... credentialing.
T or F: The brain does not grow new cells. False. There is evidence that neurogenesis occurs in the olfactory system, the hippocampus and in the prefrontal region.
Psychopathology is lowest in which age group? Those 65 and older.
Speech of autistic people often involves reversal of... pronouns.
Chodorow is associated with which theory? Object relations.
What is the most frequently used projective? The Rorschach
T or F. The onset of vasular dementia is gradual. False, it's patchy.
Define pseudodementia. Having symptoms that look like dementia but without the normal organic cause.
What stat is used to describe the agreement between raters? Kappa.
Patterson and colleagues believe that aggressive children come from what kind of parenting? Those who use harsh, inconsistent punishment.
According to Locke, goal attainment is maximized when goals are... specific and attainable.
In Barry's model, integration refers to... High maintenance of both the minority and mainstream cultures.
Alzheimers is associated with decreases in which neurotransmitter? ACh.
T Score has a mean of _______ and a SD of ______. Mean of 50, SD of 10.
Parkinson's is associated with decreases in what kind of neurons? Dopamineric neurons.
Define idosyncracy credits. These are accumulated when a "minority" group member proves his/her ability to conform to the group. They are like brownie points.
Why do we do item analysis? To determine which items to retain in a test.
To win a malpractice suit against a psychologist, a person must show: A failure to perform a duty (professional relationship) resulting in harm.
If a new client tells you that they had sex with a previous therapist, what should you do? You can't report it without their permission, but you can counsel them on the ethics code.
What's the preferred treatment for agoraphobia? Exposure (in-vivo) with response prevention.
T or F. According to the Buckley Amendment, you have a right to see your school records and, in some cases, to request that the records be destroyed. True.
What is the ratio of alcohol abuse, male to female? 5 to 1.
What's another term for tonic-clonic seizures? Grand mal
Define "functional disorders." The old DSM term for disorders without a known organic cause.
If you followed Minuchin's theories, what would you do with a family in therapy? Focus on restructuring maladaptive family structures, boundaries and subsystems.
What is the term for slow heart rate? For fast heart rate? Brachycardia and tachycardia.
What stat do you use to measure internal consistency reliability for dichotomous items? Kuder-Richardson.
What is the job of a process consultant, in the workplace? To change office processes so that workers can solve their own problems.
T or F. You can provide psychological services, at the request of a non-custodial parent, without the consent of a custodial parent. False.
A culturally-encapsulated therapist... tends to accept cultural stereotypes about members of other groups and is unaware of his or her cultural biases.
T or F. The most effective treatment for OCD is exposure with response prevention. It doesn't really matter if it's in vivo or imaginal. It also doesn't matter if it's gradual or flooding. It also doesn't matter it the exposure is massed or distribute True.
In Wolpe's view, neurotic depression is linked to _________ and should be treated with _________. anxiety .... systematic desensitization.
In African-Americans, what age range has the most suicide? a) 25 to 44 b) 45 to 64 c) 65 to 74 d) 75 + A
In Rutter's view, some children react better to divorce due to... early social interactions, especially with parents...
Define blocking (in Classical Conditioning) Occurs when a second stimulus is presented with the CS, just before the US. Although you'd think that the second stimulus would also elicit the CR, it doesn't happen (it's blocked.)
Feature integration theory states that a object is perceived as a whole rather than as a combination of parts due to _____________ attention. focused
Which type of headaches is most likely to be exacerbated by jarring motions, bending forward and lifting? Migraines.
What are the primary risk factors for stroke? Increasing age, hypertension, diabetes, and cigarette smoking.
External validity refers to... making sure that your sample is representative of the population. Generalizability.
According to Kohut, what leads to naricissism? What should a therapist do remediate it? lack of parental empathy... be empathic.
What do we know about ethnic group usage of mental health services? Some groups use more than whites (Af-Am) and some use less (Asian, Latino.)
T or F. Grand mal seizures may be a symptom of withdrawal from heavy alcohol use. T.
At what age do boys and girls begin to be dissimilar in athletic ability? At puberty (age 12 we would still expect girls to compete with boys.
Vrooom and Yetton's model of leadership provides a ______ to help the leader determine whether an autocratic, consultative, or consensual approach is best. decision tree
Define the Premack Principle Access to a frequent behavior (thus, one enjoyed) is used as a reinforcement for a less frequent (thus, less enjoyed) behavior. You can watch TV (a frequent behavior, needs no reinforcement) after you clean your room (an infrequent behavior, needs to be reinforced.)
Sensory memory stores a ______ amount of information for a ______ amount of time. large ... short.
Define psychophysics. The study of the actual magnitude of a physical stimulus and the internal sensation sensation associated with that magnitude. You might study how much a light needs to increase before a human notices the difference.
T or F. Just noticeable differences are equal intervals, both psychologically and physically. False. Just noticable differences are equal intervals psychologically, not physically.
Define mimesis Adopting a family's communication and affective style as a way of joining the family system.
T or F. Chronic alcoholism is more likely to cause deficits in visuospatial skills than in verbal skills. True.
How is Alzheimers different from Korsakoff's Syndrome? Alzheimer's is a type of dementia. By definition, dementia involves both memory loss and other cognitive impairments. Korsakoff's involves memory impairment, unsteady gait and confabulation (thinking something is true that is not.)
House's path-goal theory notes that the optimal leader style... varies with the situation but involves helping workers achieve their goals.
Both amphetamine intoxication and cocaine intoxication involve: vomiting, confusion and pupillary dilation.
Define advocacy consultation Working with disenfranchised groups to bring about changes in external human services organizations.
Define theme interferance. When a worker brings emotional baggage into the workplace. When a worker displaces past pro present problems onto a situation at work. Similar to or a subtype of transferance.
T or F. In Marlatt's model of substance dependence, the addict uses substances to get relief from guilt and self-criticism. True. He also believed that people prone to relapse tend to make dispositional attributions about their slips.
T or F. The Ethics Codes don't specify a specific time limit for keeping records. True. That's left to state law. State laws designate a minimum time period, but not a maximum. You can keep records longer than is legally required.
You want to reduce beta in order to minimize.... the risk of Type II errors, retaining a false null hypothesis.
T or F. It's unethical to solicit testimonials from your clients. False. It IS illegal to solicit testimonials from current clients or clients who may be subject to undue influence.
Family maps would be used by what kind of therapist? Structural family therapist, a la Minuchin--used to map out family boundaries.
Chaining is used to... link a group of simple behaviors together to make a more complex behavior.
T or F. There is no association between menopause and depression. True.
T or F. The majority of people who quit smoking gain weight, and the average weight gain is between 20 and 25 pounds. False. 80% of quitters gain weight, but it's only 7-9 lbs on average.
What the difference between Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Conduct disorder is a more serious diagnosis, consistent with anti-social behavior (stealing, setting fires, running away.)
Define delirium Disturbances in consciousness and disorientation which occur and remit quite rapidly. Temporary disorder, occurs with conditions such as fevers and intoxication. Results in restlessness, delusions, hallucinations, excitement....
Transactional analysis focuses on... Getting and receiving strokes. The strokes come from and are aimed at one of our three ego states (parent, child, adult.)
What is the most well-known test that was developed using criterion keying? The MMPI.
T or F. Work samples are a poor predictor of job success. False. Work samples are good predictors. Personality tests are poor predictors.
The case of Larry P. v. Riles dealt with... the questioning the validity of IQ tests in student placement in mentally retarded classrooms.
Define instrumental aggression. Instrumental ggression is a means to an end. Hostile aggression arises out of emotion.
Compaired to unilingual children, bilingual children... are more cognitively flexible. They also have better divergent thinking and metalinguistic awareness.
There is a strong evidence for a genetic component four of the personality disorders. Which four? Antisocial, paranoid, schizotypal, and schizoid.
Another term for primary memory is... short-term memory.
Another term for secondary memory is... long-term memory.
T or F. Lewin's Field theory focuses on past experiences. False. It focuses on current "lifespace."
Damages to the temporal lobe produces deficits in _________ memory. episodic (declarative.)
T or F. Sleep terror disorder begins between the ages of 4 and 12, and resolves spontaneously in adolescence. True.
This class of medication can be used to prevent premature ejaculation.... SSRIs.
T or F. After a delay, the primacy effect is more powerful than the recently effect. True.
T or F. The EPPP creators consider the Rorschach to be a valid test. True.
Semantic memory covers... language and logic.
The concept of reciprocal teaching is most consistent with which of the child theorists? Vygotsky.
HIPAA applies to agencies..... who transmit information electronically (not by mail, phone or fax.)
T or F. Kleinefelter's syndrome is found more often in males than females (3:1) ratio. False. The syndrome is ONLY found in males. It's due to XXY. Often not noticed until adolescence. However, is associated with some earlier developmental delays.
What part of the brain is associated with mental imagery? Limbic system.
T or F. Huntington's is related to decreases in GABA. True. These decreases in GABA make dopamine more available, leading to the symptoms of Huntingtons.
In newly immigrated people, psychological adjustment symptoms typically emerge: At the end of year 1 through year 3.
The Standard Error of Measurement typically ranges from... 0 to the SD.
_________ is the correlation coefficient used when there are curvilinear relationships. Eta.
T or F. Percentile rank is a norm referenced way of conveying scores. True.
Tiedman & O-Hara are associated with what? Career theory, focused on identity.
What is the generic name for Strattera? atomoxetine.
When does OCD typically emerge in males? In females? In males, 6 to 15. In females, early twenties. As adults, the prevalence is equivalent.
Anxiety is acquired through ______ conditioning and maintained through _____ operant conditioning. classical ... operant.
T or F. Used alone, nicotine replacement therapy is an effective, long-term treatment for nicotine addiction. False. Not effective in the long-term, when used alone.
When you have more than one DV, what is one possible analysis to use? MANOVA.
Some theorists believe that children don't have panic attacks because... they don't make catastrophic interpretations of internal stimuli.
In recent years, what age group has had the biggest increase in suicide? 15 to 24.
T or F. Overall, biofeedback is superior to relaxation for headaches. False. While thermal biofeedback is best for migraines, the overall data does not support the use of biofeedback for all kinds of headaches.
T or F. Once they have begun to experience cogntive decline, there is no way to improve the cognitive skills of the elderly. False. They can train and regain the skills that they lost.
T or F. In self-directed teams, the group members tend to be experts in one area (rather than generalists). False. They tend to be generalists. A drawback is that absenteeism has been found to go up.
Define experimental neurosis. Pavlov's term for the pattern of behavior which occurred in his animals when they were required to respond to stimuli that were too close to be distinguished. Frustration, chaotic behavior and indiscriminate production of the CR were observed.
Define backwards conditioning. The US is presented before the CS.
When do you perform aversive counterconditioning? When the person has a positive association with stimuli that lead to an undesired response. E.g. positive feeling about taking heroine. You need to couple the presentation of heroine with an stimuli which will produce a negative response.
Define counterconditioning When you want to reduce a response, you couple the US with a CS that will produce an incompatible response. CS (spiders) ---> CS (fear) CS (smell of cookies) ---> (relaxed)
What is it called when you present a US before a CS? Backwards conditioning.
What happens during a grand mal seizure? There is a tonic phase with (extension of the limbs) and a clonic phase (violent, rhythmic contractions.)
When a woman drinks moderate amounts of alcohol, a child may exhibit "fetal alcohol effects." This is less extreme than FAS. What does it involve? Cognitive and behavioral problems without the physical defects. Less severe but also irreversible.
Among those at high risk for AIDS, what is the best predictor of decreased risk taking? What about those at low risk? being provided knowledge about AIDS. group norm disapproval for high risk activity.
Describe Reactive Attachment Disorder Caused by neglect: leads to disturbances in social relatedness. Inhibited type tends to be hypervigalent/wary. Disinhibited tend to indiscriminate attachment and sociability.
Kernberg believed that Borderline Personality Disorder was caused by... aggressive impulses
What accounts for the most cases of Mental Retardation? Early abnormalities in embryonic development.
Trainability test is done to predict if the examinee is likely to... do well in training, thus perform well on job samples.
In conduction aphasia, one... can speak fluently and understand speech, but cannot repeat what they have heard.
What does it mean to have polythetic criteria? You must only meet some of the criteria in order to qualify.
What is the best analysis to determine if a relationship between variables dis linear or non-linear? Trend analysis.
T or F. In dissociative amnesia, there is usually memory loss for information acquired after the traumatic event. True. This is unlike amnesia caused by a physical trauma.
What type of marital status is most associated with suicide? Divorced.
What can we learn from an item characteristic curve? The probability that an examinee at a given level of ability will answer an item correctly.
What's the best way to reduce rater error? Training!
What is shown with the effect size? The difference between the treatment and control groups, given in units of standard deviation. How much better did one group do than the other. The effect size is NOT a direct measure of how much better off the experimental group is than the controls. You have to look at a table to determine that.
T or F. Vascular dementia includes marked personality change. False. That's Alzheimers.
When a task is a combination of individual efforts, and group members are not assigned a particular role, this is called a ________ task. additive.
When each group member must complete part of a goal, and if one group member fails, the group fails, it is called a ______ task. Conjunctive.
Steele & Josephs' research on alcohol found that anxiety increases after drinking alcohol if you _______ but not if you _______. do nothing .... engage in a distraction.
T or F. The goal of Helm's racial identity development model was to help mental health professionals understand inter-racial tensions in their therapeutic relationships. True.
Scaffolding refers to... a parent, teacher or older sibling providing temporary support to help a child learn a skill.
Psychotherapy supervisees are most likely to report that their supervisors are guilty of an ethical violation in the area of.... performance evaluation.
T or F. According to Horn and Cattell, fluid intelligence develops through the use of crystallized intelligence. False. It's that crystallized intelligence develops through the use of fluid intelligence.
What kind of difference might we find, for a depressed patient, in terms of Verbal and Performance IQ? Higher verbal than performance.
Higher Performance than Verbal IQ is consistent with... low SES, learning disabilities, and anti-social behavior.
According to Fielder's contingency model, a task oriented leader is most effective when the task is... very structured or very unstructured. (In very favorable, or very unfavorable, conditions.)
Holland and Roe both predicted that job satisfaction will be greatest when there is a _____ and _____ match. personality and job environment
Vestibule training requires... ...a physical simulation of the work environment.
Define prosopagnosia... ...inability to recognize familiar faces.
What is Capgras' syndrome? believe that a familiar person has been replaced by an imposter.
What brain area has been linked to ADHD? Caudate nucleus, smaller than average, on the right hemisphere.
According to the EPPP, a "Latina" is most likely to experience her symptoms of depression as... a physical or spiritual problem.
T or F. Psychomotor training, with the elderly, can improve muscle strength, mobility, reaction time, and defensive driving. True.
T or F. If records are requested for a client who still owes you fees, you can withold the records, contingent upon payment arrangements, in some situations. True, as long as the records are not imminently needed.
Children with a history of ear infections are most likely to do poorly on which WISC-III subtest? Digit span.
The tendency to react in opposite of what is requested or desired is called... reactance.
When Total Quality Management fails, it's usually because... the employees aren't given responsibilities, aren't being brought into the decision making process.
For a diagnosis of Tourette's, a person must have multiple _________ tics and at least one __________ tic. motor ... vocal.
Which group of people (male vs. female and marital status) are most likely to be admitted to a mental hospital? Which group is least likely? never married men... never married women.
Adding an integrity test, in addition to a general cognitive ability test, is likely to do _____ to hiring decisions? reduce adverse impact by increasing the number of minority applicants hired.
In a study by Sue et al. which ethnic group had the highest drop out rate? Which group had the lowest? African-Americans .... Asian-Americans.
In a consultee-centered case consultatino, the consultant's role is most similar to that of... a supervisor.
Disorganized-Disoriented attachment in infancy is somewhat predictive of ________ in preschool. Hostility towards other children.
T or F. When formerly rejected students change schools, they fair better than formerly neglected children who changed schools. False. The rejected tend to stay rejected. The neglected may get accepted.
According to Piaget, what underlies cognitive development? Maturation and environmental stimulation.
With Rehm's self-control model of depression, what is a typical intervention? Keeping a daily record of mood, activity and events. Training to modify self-evaluations and to administer self-reinforcement.
Cluster sampling involves... randomly selecting naturally-occurring groups of subjects from a larger population. (e.g. selecting teachers from a few schools, when the target population is teachers.)
Unilateral ECT administered to one side of the brain will impact... functioning on that side of the brain.
Define normative-reeducative change strategy... Changing norms within an organization to bring about change. E.g. using an employee to advocate for changes with the other workers.
What do we know about therapy outcome for Af-Am clients, compared to Whites? Mixed results. Most studies show no differences in outcome. May be more likely to terminate prematurely.
When a child has a reward taking away for producting undesirable behaviors, this is called... response cost (a type of negative punishment.)
T or F. Item response theory can be used to develop culture fair tests. True. This is because one of the assumptions is that the items should hold the same characterists for each group. If it doesn't, the test isn't culture fair.
When acting as a divorce mediator, you should... attempt to get each spouse to be more flexible about their goals.
The Native American family is... collateral. That means that both extended family and other tribe members are viewed as family.
Kohler is associated with... insight learning.. "a-ha" moments.
If a 5-year old testifies in court, his answers will be most accurate if he is asked _________ questions. Open-ended.
In principal components analysis, rotations lead to the components being ___________. This is in contrast to factor analysis, in which you have a choice of correlated or uncorrelated factors. uncorrelated.
T or F. Research with the elderly has shown that therapy not as effective as it is for other ages. False.
In contrast to multiple cut-off, multiple hurdle selection... the applicant may not have to complete all assessments. Once they fail one, they stop.
Time out is based on... removal of positive reinforcers. It's also punishment, but it is mainly designed to keep the child away from any reinforcement.
The strength of a classically conditioned response is determined by... the number of times the CS is paired with the US.
Physical characteristics, such as age, disability, strength, etc... can be used in job selection provided that... the employer can prove that certain physical characteristics are needed for the job.
According to the central limit theorem... as sample size increases, the shape of the sampling distribution of means becomes more normal.
Compared to non-obese people, obese people... have slower metabolisms, react more to external cues for hunger, are more likely to react to stress with hunger.
T or F. There are no known physical correlates to pathological gambling. False. It's linked to low levels of serotonin.
T or F. In workplaces, younger people tend to have more accidents than older people. True.
In a study of police intervention in domestic violence situation, the best immediate results came from... arresting the perpetrator.
How do you distinguish between Mood Disorder with Psychosis and Schizoaffective? In the latter, there must be a period where the psychosis appears without the mood issues.
Delirium can be caused by withdrawal from what types of substances... Downers: alcohol, sedatives, anxiolytics, hypnotics.
What test is commonly used to evaluate brain injuries, following an accident? Glascow Coma Scale
According to Rollins and Feldman (1970) marital satisfaction across the lifespan follows what kind of pattern? U shaped. However, more recent research suggests that it declines sharply in the first 10 years, and declines more gradually thereafter.
Loss of memory for autobiographical information is referred to as... functional amnesia. Functional amensia is caused by psychological trauma and leads to people not remembering autobiographical information. Amnesia due to head trauma would not be limited to autobiographical information.
What is another term for satisficing? The Administrative decision making model.
How are decisions made in the rational-economic model? You consider all possible alternatives.
Records of psychological services need to include: fees, types of services provided, and plans for treatment interventions.
What does it mean to have capitated payment? It means that a fixed amount of money is paid per person (not per visit or per service.) You might get paid a set amount to provide services to a group of individuals.
The most effective intervention for cigarette smoking involves the use of nicotine replacement therapy, skills training and.... social support.
How do you distinguish between schizophrenia "type I" and "type II"? Crow (1980) Type I has positive symptoms and responds well to traditional neuroleptics. Type II is the opposite: negative symptoms and poor chance at recovery.
The "fourth force" in psychology is... multiculturalism.
Which three tests can be used to detect differential item functioning (DIF): SIBTEST, Mantel-Haenszel, and Lord's chi-square.
T or F. Fluoxetine causes the following side effects: headache, insomnia, anxiety, nausea, sleepiness, and confusion. False. It does not cause confusion. The others are potential side-effects of prozac.
What is the coefficient of determination? How is it calculated? It indicates the proportion of variability accounted in one variable accounted for by another. It is the square of the correlation coefficient.
T or F. Flextime schedules have the greatest impact on absenteeism, but also impact productivity and job satisfaction. True.
Craid and Lockhart's Levels of Processing Theory states that in order to maximize recall you must... process the information on a deep level, connecting it with other information you already know (elaborative rehearsal.)
T or F. Stepfathers provide less support, less control, and less punishment than biological fathers. True.
Communication networks where infomration passes along a chain of command are associated with... simple job tasks.
T or F. In a client-centered cases consultation, the consultant might assess one of the consultee's clients and advise the consultee of the best treatmetn approach for the specific client. True. The consultant gathers information on the client (either directly or indirectly) and advises on the best course of action to take with the client.
Loss of sensation due to brain injury is likely due to damange to the ___________ cortex which is on the __________ of the __________ lobe. the somatosensory cortex which is on the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe.
If one twin has schizophrenia, what is the risk that the other identical twin will have it? What if the twin were fraternal? 46% vs. 17% (around 2.5 times greater).
Classic Adlerian psychotherapy is a progression through ______ stages. 12.
What percentage of scores fall between 1 SD of the mean in a normal distribution? How far away from the mean is a percentile score of 84? 68% 1 SD
When two or more independent variables are used you could use _______ to analyze. With two or more dependent variables, you could use... Factorial ANOVA. MANOVA.
Release of sex hormones by the gonads depends on signals from the.... hypothalamus.
The nonverbal measure of intelligence developed specifically for deaf and hearing impaired children is.... the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude.
The APA's position on the notification of partner's of clients with HIV/AIDS is consistent with its emphasis on... confidentiality. You shouldn't tell unless: 1) there is a identifiable person who may be harmed, 2) the person is unaware of the risk, 3) you have urged your client to disclose and they have not, and 4) the psychologist is protected legally from liability for disclosing (this must be a state law provision.)
How long must tics be present before the diagnosis of Tourette's is made? If it doesn't meet the time criteria, what is a diagnosis consistent with a shorter duration? Needs to be more than 12 months. Otherwise it would be "Transient Tic Disorder."
The Oedipal complex originates in what state of Freud's model of psychosexual development? Phallic.