20th Century Music

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Who did the earliest scientific study of folk music? Janacek
Who did t he most extensive study of Eastern Music Kodaly
WHo achieved the most complete synthesis of folk idioms and art music? Bartok
What was Bartok's most important non-operatic work Cantata Profana
What composer made signifigant contributions to music education Kodaly
What popular work by Kodaly is a Singspeil and an orchestra suit Hary Janos
A vital part of Orff's education curriculum is what? Improvisation
What was Orff's most famous work? Carmina Burana
What was the most important influence on Vaughan William's Music English Heritage
What compositional technique was a trafdemark of Vaughn Williams music? downward curve of melody
What popular work by Kodaly is a Singspiel and an Orchestra Suite? Hary Janos
A vital part of Orff’s education curriculum is what? Improvisation
What is Orff’s most famous work? Carmina Burana
What was the most important influence on Vaughan Williams’ music? English heritage
What compositional technique was a trademark of Vaughan Williams’ music? downward curve of melody
For what type of English music did Vaughan Williams lay the groundwork? English opera
In what area were Britten’s principle contributions? solo songs, choral works, and operas
What is Britten’s best-known opera? Peter Grimes
Which Russian composer followed the Soviet regulations regarding the function of art music and was the least innovative? Khachaturian
Which Russian composer foreshadowed the Neoclassic movement by writing a Classic Symphony? Prokofiev
What are the significant characteristics of Bartok’s music? elements of Magyar folk music, driving rhythms, ostinato, and tone clusters.
Who were two members of the “Second Viennese School?” Schoenberg and Webern
Whose symphonies were his greatest contribution to the music of the mid-twentieth century? Shostakovich
What were the two main factors that generated the development of dodecaphony? 1. the increasingly abundant use of dissonances in Post-Romantic music. 2. greater interest in and an ever-increasing use of linear counterpoint.
Who was the main developer of serialism? Schoenberg
Who was the main developer of serialism? Schoenberg
What was Schoenberg’s first distinctive post-Romantic style work? Verklarte Nacht
Erwartung and Die gluckiche Hand are from which of Schoenberg’s style period? 2nd – Dissonant pantonal Expressionistic works
In which composition did Schoenberg first realize the possibilities of the 12-tone system? Suite fur Klavier
When did the neoclassic movement begin? near the end of World War I
Who were the chief exponents of Neoclassic music? Stravinsky and Hindemith
Who was the least prolific composer of Les Six? Auric
What were Auric’s most important musical contributions? stage and theater works
The bulk of Honegger’s music was what type? stage and dramatic work
Poulenc was a master of what type of music? melodie
What are the significant characteristics of Milhaud’s music? objective, characterized by lyrical melodies, formal clarity, skillful use of counterpoint, and bitonality or polytonality
What is Hindemith’s book on the philosophy of music? A Composers World
What was Hindemith’s basic philosophy of music? music must be understood
What was Hindemith’s operatic masterpiece? Mathis der Maler
What is the main feature of Le sacre du printemps? rhythm
What was a forerunner of Stravinsky’s Neoclassic period? Pulcinella
Who was one of the most influential composition teachers of the 20th century? Boulanger
Who was the most outstanding American-born composer between the world wars? Copland
Blues entered the American concert hall in what piece? Rhapsody in Blue
Who was one of the pioneers in compiling and publishing folk songs for children? Seeger
Who included his musical signature in many of his works? Shostakovich
What 12-tone composer wrote short, condensed works? Webern
One person unfolds the entire drama in what? monodrama
One person unfolds the entire drama in what? monodrama
In 1965, who built the first voltage-controlled synthesizers? Moog
What was the fist musical composition that had the score produced by a computer? Illiac Suite for String Quartet
What non-serial work of Messiaen influenced many of his serialist students? Mode de valeurs
Who was the chief exponent of serialism in France during the 1940’s? Messiaen
What treatment is the most unusual characteristic of Messiaen’s music? rhythm
What influenced the melodies of Messiaen? Chant and Folk song
What are characteristics of Messian’s music? plainsong and liturgical references, birdsongs, color-chords, and rhythmic precision
Who used the term Musique Concrete as a term to describe taped compositions? Schaeffer
Who prepared musique concrete for the movie Astrologie? Henry
What is Boulez’s best-known and probably most expressive composition? Le marteau sans maitre
Who contributed the technique of chord manipulation to serialism? Boulez
Who decried Schoenberg’s failure to develop serialism, and affirmed Webern the leader? Boulez
What German composer was the early leader in the developments in electronic music? Eimert
Who composed Vier Stucke, a composition created from purely synthetic sounds? Eimert
Who wrote Studie II, the first electronic composition to be published in score? Stockhausen
Who combined the use of space and the human voice in the electronic composition Gesang der Junglinge? Stockhausen
What was Stockhausen’s first composition to be based on a specific melodic formula? Mantra
Who influenced Varese in during 1920-1930? Debussy
What was the earliest composition created on tape and who composed it? Deserts by Varese
Who located the idea of combinatoriality in Schoenberg’s work and developed it in his own? Babbitt
What piece by Babbit is the first real example of rhythmic serialization? Three Compositions for Piano
Who used numbed sequences to determine the structure of rhythm in his String Quartet in Four Part ans Concerto? Cage
Whose works have been highly influential in regard to indeterminancy in music? Cage
What are characteristics of Ligeti’s music? clusters and clouds
Who was the first composer to use minimalism in music? Young
Who are the principle exponents of minimalist music? Riley and Glass
Who were the leading Neoromantic composers in America? Tredici, Adams, Zwilich, Tower
What is white noise? All possible frequencies sounding simultaneously
In Spain, who was the pioneer in the return to consonant harmonic music? Roig-Francoli
What was the title of John Corigliano’s second opera, commissioned by the New York Met and then premiered in 1991? The Ghosts of Versailles
Who composed the series of operas based on Genesis, entitled Licht? Stockhausen
Eurhythmics the science of harmonious body movements
Dodecaphony term synonymous with 12-tone music
Expressionism the effort to convey the artist’s inner feelings rather than to represent external reality
Atonality the total absence of any center of key tonality
Pantonality the presence of all tonal centers
Klangfarbenmelodie a melody created not simply by successive pitches but by changing instrumental timbre
Sprechstimme speech-song
Pointillism athematic music constructed from isolated notes often highlighted by different timbres
Neoclassicism revival of the classical style
Gebrachsmusik music for use
Total Serialism he application of the rules of serial composition to all possible musical parameters
Musique Concrete sounds were from natural sources created directly on tape
Prepared Piano placement of foreign objects among the piano stings to create unusual sounds and new timbres
Minimalism music that is characterized by repetition of short figures, tonal harmony, slow harmonic rhythm, and more or less regular pulsation
Primitivism music, costumes, and scenery depicting primitive life
What are the significant characteristics of Prokofiev’s music? 1. Nationalism is present but is mingled with Classic and Modern features. 2. He used traditional forms and was adept at motivic development. 3.His music is tonal, with lyrical but angular melodies, strong motor rhythm, and sudden modulations to unexpected keys. 4. Bosso ostinato occurs frequently. 5. The instrumental writing is idiomatic. 6. Fuller sonority is achieved by having dissimilar instruments double the passage. 7. Symphonies include piano and harp.
How did Berg and Webern utilize tone rows? Berg did not adhere to a single row for an entire composition; often he combined tonal and non-tonal elements in a work. Webern strictly adhered to serial principles, used one row per movement, and wrote highly ordered counterpoint that was concentrated in extremely compressed forms.
What are the significant characteristics of Schoenberg’s music? 1. melodies contain wide leaps 2. the use of small motifs 3. the absence of vigorous propelling rhythms 4. emphasis on counterpoint 5. a penchant for constantly changing tone colors
What are the significant characteristics of Berg’s music? 1. use of scales that are largely whole-tone 2. prolongation of a passage by melodic expansion of an interval 3. combining atonality with traditional forms 4. suggesting tonality in what is actually atonality
How did Stravinsky use rhythm? He based rhythms on the constancy of a minimum value and used multiples of that, making whatever adjustments were necessary in meter signatures and bar line placements.
What are the techniques of unity that underline the diversity of Stravinsky’s style? 1. he never completely abandoned key tonality 2. he worked with opposing tonal poles 3. he used modality, bitonality, polytonality, and dodecaphonic techniques 4. rhythm is his most important feature
Who played a decisive roll in the development of music in Mexico during the second quarter of the 20th century? Chavez
What is the philosophy of expressionistic composition? A composer sought to express inner feelings and created atonal/pantonal works in which the music is abstract and intense and traditional harmony and formal patterns are distorted or ignored.
What are the characteristics of Neoromantic music? More emphasis on melody and on tonality (tonality unlike that of the 19th century). 1. the 1st and 5th scale degree no longer possess the tonal pull 2. chordlike appreciations of pitches form harmonies that succeed one another without the feeling that functional relationships exist between them. 3. pieces are written without designation of a “key tonality,” but tonal centers appear within the work and movement from one tonal center to another is achieved without the traditional processes of modulation.
What are the four main points of Hindemith’s compositional philosophy? 1. music must be understood as a communication between the composer and consumer of the music 2. a composer must be a performing musician and must have acquired familiarity with instruments through participation in ensembles 3. key tonality is unavoidable 4. endorsed the theory expressed in the writings of Plato, Ptolemy, Boethius, and other ancient and medieval philosophers that the principles of order governing the acoustical ratios of musical intervals and the order within a musical composition symbolize and reflect the principles that govern the universe
How did Berg’s treatment of 12-tone differed from Schoenberg and Webern? 1. used dodecaphonic and nondodecaphonic episodes in the same work 2. frequently supported a tone row with harmony in or suggesting a key 3. sometimes used different rows in the same work and even in the same movement 4. used retrograde and retrograde inversions of a row only in palindromes 5. usually wrote lyrical music
What are the two principle factors that generated the move toward the 12-tone system? 1. the increasingly abundant use of dissonances in post-Romantic music 2. greater interest in and an ever-increasing use of linear counterpoint.
What are four versions of the tone row used in the formation of the 12-tone matrix? 1. original row 2. retrograde 3. inversion 4. retrograde inversion