195 countries make up the world you know today. There are 193 countries that are members of and make up the United Nations. There are 2 additional countries, Palastine and the Holy See which are not members of the United Nations and are just observer countries. Taiwan is also not included in this total count of 195 countries due to some complicated political views. Some consider it part of China and others do not.
Some countries are very large like the United States and Russia and other countries are very small and so there are many of them in a fairly small space.
There are 195 countries in the world today. 196 if Taiwan is included however, it is worthy to note that Taiwan is not considered as an official country by many countries such as the United States since China claims that Taiwan is just one of their provinces.