How does the mitochondria process nutrients from a cell and turn IT - ProProfs
     

How does the mitochondria process nutrients from a cell and turn it into energy?


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BIOE340 Lecture 2

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John Smith

John Smith

Answered on Sep 09, 2016

Powerhouse - present in all portions of cytoplasm, varies between 100-1000s per cell depending on cell type - enveloped by 2 lipid bilayers, outer/inner membrane - inner membrane forms matrices/crests along the inside of mitochondria - contain own dna, self-replicative - oxidative enzymes within/on inner membrane oxidize nutrients to form co2/h2o/atp - sources of nutrients: o2, carbohydrates (to glucose), fats (to fatty acids), proteins (to amino acids) - atp: nitrogenous base adenine, pentose sugar ribose, 3 phosphate radicals where last 2 held by high energy phosphate bond. each bond contains about 12 kcal/mol of atp - releasing energy: atp -> phosphate group + adp + energy - atp uses: - - membrane transport of substances: na/k/ca/mg/p/cl urate/hydrogen ions - - synthesis of chemical compounds: proteins/phospholipids/cholesterol/purines/pyrimidines, up to 75% atp use - - mechanical work: muscle fiber contraction/ciliary motion - storing energy: opposite direction - glycolysis: glucose enters cytoplasm + adp => pyruvic acid + atp (5% of cell energy) - citric acid cycle: pyruvic acid => acetyl-coa in mito + hydrogen atoms, h + o + adp => atp (major atp formation)

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