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Who was a French female mathematician living in a time where women were discouraged from studying mathematics that corresponds with male mathematicians under the pseudonym M. Le Blanc?



A. Elizabeth Dickerman
B. IDA Metcalf
C. Maria Agnesi

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Test 3
Asked by Cody, Last updated: Apr 29, 2020

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John Smith

John Smith

Answered Sep 08, 2016

Ida metcalf-written by amanda swift, class of 1995 (agnes scott college) sophie germain was born in an era of revolution. in the year of her birth, the american revolution began. thirteen years later the french revolution began in her own country. in many ways sophie embodied the spirit of revolution into which she was born. she was a middle class female who went against the wishes of her family and the social prejudices of the time to become a highly recognized mathematician. like the member of a revolution, her life was full of perseverance and hard work. it took a long time for her to be recognized and appreciated for her contributions to the field of mathematics, but she did not give up. even today, it is felt that she was never given as much credit as she was due for the contributions she made in number theory and mathematical physics because she was a woman. sophie germain was born in paris on april 1, 1776 to ambroise-francois and marie germain. her family was quite wealthy. her father was a merchant and later became a director of the bank of france. sophies interest in mathematics began during the french revolution when she was 13 years old and confined to her home due to the danger caused by revolts in paris. she spent a great deal of time in her fathers library, and one day she ran across a book in which the legend of archimedes death was recounted. legend has it that during the invasion of his city by the romans archimedes was so engrossed in the study of a geometric figure in the sand that he failed to respond to the questioning of a roman soldier. as a result he was speared to death (perl 64). this sparked sophies interest. if someone could be so engrossed in a problem as to ignore a soldier and then die for it, the subject must be interesting! Thus she began her study of mathematics. sophie began teaching herself mathematics using the books in her fathers library. her parents felt that her interest was inappropriate for a female (the common belief of the middle-class in the 19th century) and did all that they could to discourage her. she began studying at night to escape them, but they went to such measures as taking away her clothes once she was in bed and depriving her of heat and light to make her stay in her bed at night instead of studying. sophies parents efforts failed. she would wrap herself in quilts and use candles she had hidden in order to study at night. finally her parents realized that sophies passion for mathematics was incurable, and they let her learn. thus sophie spent the years of the reign of terror studying differential calculus (osen 85) without the aid of a tutor! in 1794, when sophie was 18, the ecole polytechnique was founded in paris. it was an academy founded to train mathematicians and scientists for the country (perl 64). women were not allowed to enroll in the academy, but sophie was able to obtain the lecture notes for several of the courses and study from them. this gave her the opportunity to learn from many of the prominent mathematicians of the day. sophie was particularly interested in the teachings of j. l. lagrange. under the pseudonym of m. leblanc ( a former student of lagranges), sophie submitted a paper on analysis to lagrange at the end of the term. he was quite impressed with the work and wanted to meet the student who had written it. lagrange was amazed that the author of the work was actually a female, but he recognized her abilities and became her mentor. with a male to introduce her, sophie could enter the circle of scientists and mathematicians that she never before could. up until this point not only had her gender been a hindrance to her, but her social status had been too. it was socially acceptable for aristocratic women to be taught the sciences and mathematics so that they could talk about it casually with friends. sophie was of the middle class so this opportunity had passed her by. in 1804, sophie began corresponding with the german mathematician, carl friedrich gauss. she was intrigued with his work in number theory and sent him some of the results of her work in number theory. again she used her pseudonym to disguise her true identity. it was not until 1807 that he found out who m. leblanc truly was. he was thrilled to find that his pen pal was a very gifted woman. in 1808 germain sent gauss a letter describing some of her work in number theory. sophie never heard from him about her last correspondence because he had stopped his work in number theory after taking a job as professor of astronomy at the university of gottingen. about 12 years later, however, she wrote to the mathematician legendre about what would be her most important work in number theory. germain proved that if x, y, and z are integers and if x^5 + y^5 = z^5 then either x, y, or z must be divisible by 5. germains theorem is a major step toward proving fermats last theorem for the case where n equals 5 (dalmedico 119). fermats last theorem says that if x, y, z, and n are integers then xn + yn = zn cannot be solved for any n greater than 2. gauss had guided sophies research, so now she began to search for a new mentor. at about this time the french academy of sciences announced a contest to explain the underlying mathematical law of a german physicists study on the vibration of elastic surfaces. sophie was fascinated and set out to explain the law underlying chladnis study. the academy set a two year deadline, and in 1811 sophie submitted the only entry in the contest. her lack of formal education was evident in the anonymous paper she submitted, and thus she was not awarded the prize. she still had much to learn in the area. lagrange was able to correct her errors and two years later she again entered the contest which had been extended. she received honorable mention this time. finally in 1816, she entered the contest for the third time and won with her paper memoir on the vibrations of elastic plates. upon earning the prize, the judges did relate that there were some serious shortcomings in her explanation. these shortcomings would not be corrected for decades. after winning the contest, sophie continued her work on the theory of elasticity publishing several more memoirs. the most important of these deals with the nature, bounds, and extent of elastic surfaces (osen 90). her work in the theory of elasticity would prove to be very important to the field. the prize from the academy, however, was of immediate importance because it introduced her into the ranks of the prominent mathematicians of the time. she became the first woman who was not a wife of a member to attend the academy of sciences sessions with the help of jean-baptiste-joseph fourier. she was praised by the institut de france and was invited to attend their sessions. this was the highest honor that this famous body ever conferred on a woman (osen 90). sophie worked with a well-known male mathematician in the 1820s as an equal collaborator (dalmedico 122) to refine her proofs and work in number theory. sophie germain died at the age of 55, on june 27, 1831, after a battle with breast cancer. shortly before this gauss, one of her earliest mentors, had convinced the university of gottingen to give sophie an honorary degree. she died before she could receive it. sophie germain was a revolutionary. she battled against the social prejudices of the era and a lack of formal training in order to become a celebrated mathematician. she is best known for her work in number theory, but her work in the theory of elasticity is also very important to mathematics.
 

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