Social Darwinism implies survival of the fittest, an application of Darwin’s natural selection law into society. Adam Smith's ideas influenced Darwin. Darwin places heavy reliance on Dr. Smith's observations.
The link between Adam Smith's invisible hand and Charles Darwin's natural selection is just one reason why conversations should embrace the theory of evolution.
Adam Smith was a professor of moral philosophy who posited a theory of human nature with competing motives. Darwinism is a hypothesis of biological evolution developed by naturalist Charles Darwin, stating that all species of organisms evolve through natural selection.
Intrepid and competent-darwin places heavy reliance on dr. smiths observations. so we can eliminate d because of the negative words. reliable in a is a good word, but imaginative is inappropriate for one who records facts. there is no evidence that he is excitable, which leaves us to consider b and e. the discussion of the expedition (lines 18 onwards ) supports the idea that darwin thinks him intrepid (brave and adventurous), and b is the best choice. (the words in e are really too strong. incontrovertible means cannot be contradicted, and peerless means without equal).