One of the non-consequentialist approaches to ethics that we discussed is libertarianism, or the belief that people should be free to do as they please, as long as they respect the right of others to also do as they please. Such a view creates several issues in research. Describe how a libertarian viewpoint could create at least two threats to validity in research.
Research includes several conventions, or practices that are common among researchers. these conventions allow researchers to make some assumptions regarding what other researchers do-such as avoiding plagiarism and refraining from falsifying data. if a researcher took an excessively libertarian perspective in research, many of the conventions and standards that are applied to research would no longer necessarily hold. one could not tell, for example, if the libertarian researcher had decided that he/she was free to fabricate an entire study, which would surely make the reports that were given entirely invalid from a research perspective. similarly, if a libertarian researcher decided that standards of non-coercive research practices did not apply to him/her, then it may be that the subjects could be forced to take part in the study, in which case the data they provide might be suspect. the convention, or standard, that forbids the coercion of research subjects has the effect of protecting the validity of research, since a voluntary participant is expected to be motivated to provide accurate responses to the best of his/her ability.