First, and perhaps most importantly, there is Piagetian theory. It proposes that the child develops through five different stages, starting with the sensori-motor stage and ending with moral awareness. Then there is Freudian theory. This proposed five stages also, but based on his theory of the unconscious, these stages represent gratification of needs: beginning with the oral stage, sucking, and ending with the genital stage and forming of adult relationships.
Third is Erikson who refined Freudian theory into eight stages, relating this to what conflict was relevant to each stage. Fourth is Gesell, easier to understand and useful in clearly outlining developmental skills and the average age that these might be achieved, such as climbing stairs one foot after the other. Lastly, and least importantly, is Bronfenbrenner who studied children in light of social changes and put their development into the context of community.
Learning perspective- people are responders; the environment or experiences control behavior2. psychoanalytic-behavior is controlled by powerful unconscious urges or forces3. cognitive-thought processes are central to development4. contextual-society is inseprable from your individual development5. evolutionary/sociobiological-focuses on evolutionary and biological bases of behavior. it draws on findings of anthropology, ecology, genetics, ethology and evolutionary psychology to explain the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior for an individual or species. (page 35...4th paragraph)