How is the atmosphere of a planet affected by the rotation rate?
A. The rotation rate determines how much atmosphere a planet has. B. The rotation rate determines how long the planet is able to retain its atmosphere. C. Faster rotation rates raise surface temperatures and thus determine how much material is gaseous versus icy or liquid. D. Faster rotation rates raise the atmospheric temperature. E. Faster rotation rates produce stronger winds.
A faster rotation rate produces stronger winds. This is the same reason that you have to spin a bottle very fast to create a whirlpool in the liquid. This is a good visual tactic to see how rotation rate affects winds; the swirling water acts as the air in the atmosphere. While winds typically go straight through, the water trick is a cool way to see how the stronger winds affect tornadoes specifically. All you need is a two-liter plastic bottle and some water. This will give you the clearest picture.
All the funscience experimentation aside, a faster rotation rate will also allow the planet to decay faster. Part of the reason is that winds can tear down trees and other vegetation that keep soil or the equivalent in place.