Terrestrial plants grow on the land whereas water plants grow on water. Water plants have basic structural differences that adapt it to the different surroundings. For instance, they have much more stomata. This is because the plant already has lots of water. It needs gas to stay afloat and to carry out its functions.
Hence, the plant has more stomata to allow for rapid gas exchange. Moreover, this also gives the plants more buoyancy, helping it stay afloat. The fast gas exchange also provides a means of cooling down. The plant has special means of seed dispersal as well to ensure continuity of the species.
The reason for more stomata in the water plants can be traced back to gas exchanges. The more gas in a plant, the less water it can hold. Having more stomata allows more gas to go back and forth. Since a plant partially submerged in water or completely submerged will have plenty of water, getting more gas is key.
The air chambers allow the plants to be more buoyant in the water. Since plants on the land can anchor in, they don’t need to float through the air. That’s what the seeds do. There is no guarantee that a water plant can find a place to anchor down, so they use the air chambers to stay above the water or in an optimal temperature range under the water. Lignon helps the plants stand up. Resisting the water’s flow could cause a plant to bend and snap.