Vessel elements and tracheids are responsible for the transportation and circulation of water within the plant body. They are components of the xylem, and they are collectively called tracheary elements. Although vessel elements and tracheids have similar functions, they are different.
Vessels of elements are formed by the piling up of many cells. A vessel is a syncyte. The average length is about 10cm. The cells are shorter and broader than tracheids. The end of the wall is often perforated. Vessels of elements are more efficient in water conduction than tracheids.
Tracheids are formed from single individual cells, and they are not syncyte. The average length is about 1 mm. The cells of tracheids are longer and narrower than vessels. Tracheids end wall without perforations. They are also less efficient in water conduction.