The electron is known to be a fermion, but it has an electron spin ½. Fermions are considered to be half-spin integers. This is the nature of their energy. Fermions will also have a wave function that will most likely be asymmetric. This is different from the boson wherein the wave function is going to be symmetric.
Electrons are fermions because they can be very helpful in determining and creating the periodic table of elements. There is only one electron available for one set of quantum numbers. The fermion nature is very effective, especially when electrons are exposed to low temperatures. There are still a lot of studies that are being done not only about fermions but also boson to make them easier to understand.
An electron can be a fermion but what people fail to realize is that a fermion can also be a proton. It does not necessarily mean that only an electron can be a fermion. The fermion usually has a half-integer spin which means that an electron that is a fermion has to be an electron with a 1/2 spin. If it does not have a 1/2 spin, then it might be a boson.
Take note that a fermion no matter what type it is will have mass. There are differences between the various fermions that can be found right now. The variables will all have different measurements depending on the atoms.
Electrons or any particles with half-integer spins are called fermions. Fermion can be electrons, protons, and neutrons. Fermion wavelengths are also antisymmetric. Specifically, electrons are fermions simply due to the foundational makeup of the periodic table of elements. One state of an atom is one electron, so every electron is a fermion. The fermion nature of an electron also identifies its behavior in different energy states, such as in metal. While a fermion can be all the particles listed above, and Quarks, and leptons, it is important to discuss specifically electrons as fermions.
For example, as fermions, two electrons cannot spin the same way inside an atom. See also Pauli exclusion principle. Another example is that as fermions, electrons occupy different orbits and they can almost change orbit levels. Unless however, electrons are spinning in opposite directions, on different axes. The opposite of a fermion is a boson; a particle with integer spins.
Mike John, Content Explorer, MCA, Los Angeles, California, USA
Answered Jan 22, 2019
Two types of fundamental particles exist in the world fermions and bosons. Fermions particles have mass, spin (angular momentum), and charges. Bosons do not have mass and have an angular spin that is a whole integer (positively or negatively charged 1, 2, 3…). Fermions, on the other hand, have mass and their angular spin is in half integers (positively or negatively charged 1, 2, 3…).
The Pauli Exclusion Principle, which applies to fermions only, states that no two fermions can occupy the same quantum state (be in the same place at once) as opposed to bosons, which can occupy the same quantum state. Electrons also have the same properties as fermions in that they have mass, angular momentum, and charges. The angular momentum for electrons is nh/2pie (according to Bohr atom), which equates to a half integer spin similar to fermions. Furthermore, electrons belong to a family of particles called leptons, the basic building blocks of matter (elementary particles.) Fermions include lepton particles. Therefore, for all of the reasons above, electrons are fermions.